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28 New and Emerging There should be a high degree of intrusiveness to the Countermeasures violator (either through penalty or extent of mandated treatment). The final highway safety plan will leave some target groups that are not well addressed by the selected countermeasures. New countermeasures that fit with the above guidelines This could lead to the possibility that the state may have an and/or are similar in design to countermeasures that are interest in pursuing countermeasures that are not yet fully known to be effective are much more likely to work than developed, let alone implemented and evaluated. Such new measures that do not conform to these guidelines. Note that countermeasure development may take the form of an unso- the majority of countermeasures that have ever been tried licited proposal from some vested constituency or it may result have not stood the test of time. Most have not met their ob- from innovative efforts from staff or perhaps serendipitous jectives. Some have had negative consequences. States imple- effects from other ongoing efforts. menting new and untried efforts must evaluate progress and The potential impact of new and emerging countermea- take corrective action including halting those countermea- sures should immediately be assessed by first classifying them sures that are not producing the desired behavioral change. It as: Voluntary Action; Laws, Regulations, Policies; Laws Plus is important to redeploy resources to effective programs as Enhancements; or Sanctions and Treatments. Then, applying soon as possible. the same principles as we have for known existing counter- measures, the state can estimate how the implementation of such countermeasures is likely to affect the fatality, injury, Conclusion and cost aspects of its traffic safety problem. Some of the most This report has focused on moving resources from ineffec- important characteristics, requirements, and opportunities tive and/or marginally effective countermeasures to those associated with the above listed categories are as follows: with the largest benefit/cost payoff. Sometimes, there are other goals and objectives that need to be considered for at Voluntary Action least a portion of available highway safety dollars. Must be of high quality and intensity; It may be found, for instance, that a particular counter- Works best when: measure is not likely to work alone, nor will it enhance the Targeting children; impact of another measure, but it could aid in the recruit- Allowing communicator some control over audience; ment of additional advocates and, as such, facilitate adoption Communicating new knowledge; and of something that does work. One example is the networking Serving as part of some larger community-based effort. and outreach that occurred just prior to the enactment of seat Laws, Regulations, Policies belt use laws. There is little evidence that such activity mea- Must be well known to the public; surably increased seat belt use, but there are indications that Must be enforceable, based on easily observable and it led to the public awareness and acceptability of seat belt objective criteria; and laws before and after enactment. Perhaps the "take one" pam- Must apply to entire targeted population, not to just a phlet, police overtime, or out-of-state training (and associ- subset of the population. ated travel) should be funded, if it is not very expensive and Laws Plus Enhancements if it will help cement ties between highway safety and some Enhancement must be well publicized; other key agency. May involve special equipment to aid officers, prosecu- There will always be a fine line between implementing tors, probation officers, etc.; and Proven countermeasures, satisfying key constituencies, and Generally involves intense selective and concentrated developing new countermeasures to meet emerging issues. enforcement. This guide focuses on Proven strategies in the hope that states Sanctions and Treatments will shift resources as much as is reasonably possible and pru- Sanction must be well known to violators; dent to countermeasures that work and away from counter- There must be an immediacy and certainty to imposi- measures that don't work or are unlikely to work given our tion of the sanction; and current understanding of behavioral change strategies.