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3 CHAPTER 2 Countermeasures Behavioral countermeasures considered in this document elimination of the Varies rating. Otherwise, the Hedlund are derived primarily from Countermeasures That Work: effectiveness ratings have been retained, with occasional A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for State Highway adjustments and updates. For example, Countermeasures Safety Offices (NHTSA, 2007b). The report was intended to That Work (NHTSA, 2007b) included studies through June include all countermeasures relevant to state programs in the 2006; since that time, there has been enough new information following areas: alcohol-impaired driving, safety belts, ag- on passenger restrictions for teenage drivers to rate them as gressive driving and speeding, distracted and fatigued driving, Proven. motorcycle safety, young drivers, and elderly drivers. Ex- In total, there are 104 separate countermeasures: 33 in the cluded are measures already in place in every state (e.g., 0.08 alcohol area; 13 for young drivers; 11 for occupant restraints; blood alcohol concentration [BAC] laws). The original report 10 for pedestrians; 9 each for bicycles and motorcycles; 7 for did not include countermeasures involving pedestrians and elderly drivers, and 6 each for distracted/fatigued drivers and bicycles, but they have been added for the 2007 update of that for aggressive drivers/speeding. document. The present report includes these countermea- Countermeasures That Work (NHTSA, 2007b) also included sures, with some adjustments (e.g., booster seat promotions, information on implementation costs, which is used as a start- a new type of program, was added). ing point in the present analyses. The cost ratings are defined The effectiveness of each countermeasure listed in Coun- as follows: termeasures That Work was assessed in terms of reductions in crashes or injuries, or improvements in some intermediate High--requires extensive new facilities, staff, equip- measure, such as arrests or successful prosecutions. The rat- ment, or publicity, or makes heavy demands on current ing categories were defined as follows: resources; Medium--requires some additional staff time, equipment, Proven--consistent positive evidence from several high- facilities, and/or publicity; and quality evaluations, Low--can be implemented with current staff, perhaps Likely--balance of evidence from high-quality evaluations with training; limited costs for equipment, facilities, and or other sources, publicity. Uncertain--limited and ambiguous evidence, Unknown--no high-quality evaluation evidence, or Information in Countermeasures That Work was presented Varies--different methods of implementing the counter- by topic area (alcohol-impaired driving, safety belts, etc.). measure produce different results. This NCHRP report cuts across topic areas. Here, counter- measures are classified according to their behavioral change The Varies rating was usually applied when there were dis- technique (e.g., education, laws, enforcement). This report cretely different types of approaches in use (e.g., the coun- also extends the Hedlund work in providing metrics for the termeasure "alcohol sanctions" included license suspension, countermeasures classified as Proven. That is, where possi- fines, and jail). These separate actions have been consid- ble, an indication of the effect size of the countermeasure is ered individually in this NCHRP report. Considering sepa- provided (e.g., 10% crash reduction), as well as the target rate actions individually in other cases has resulted in the population and likely duration of the effect. Information on

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4 monetary costs, including benefit/cost ratios, is also provided half are rated as Uncertain or Unknown. However, both whenever possible. the uncertains and the unknowns can be assessed in terms One problem encountered in conducting this research of whether they are likely to work, based on the princi- was that high-quality evidence concerning effectiveness is ples derived from those countermeasures known to work often lacking. Ideally, for every countermeasure in use, and known to be ineffective. This same procedure can be it should be known if it was effective. That is not the case. used to gauge the likely contribution of new and untried Of the more than 100 countermeasures considered, about countermeasures.