Click for next page ( 34


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 33
33 APPENDIX A Unknown/Uncertain/Unlikely Countermeasures Countermeasures shown in the text as Unknown/Uncertain/ + PI&E for low belt users (weight of evidence suggests the Unlikely were further rated as: + some basis for thinking high-quality programs can increase belt use) (Solomon they should work; - some basis for thinking they will not and Chaffe, 2006). work; and 0 unknown whether or not they will work. The - Motorcycle education and training courses (weight of re- main criterion for this rating was the research evidence. search evidence suggests no effects on crashes) (Mayhew There may be no research evidence at all, there are cases and Simpson, 2001; Ivers, in progress). where the weight of evidence tips the scale toward a + or - - Formal driver education courses for elderly drivers (weight rating, and there are cases where the available research evi- of evidence suggests no effects on crashes) (Owsley, dence does not allow a judgment. The second criterion, used McGwin, Phillips et al., 2004; Kua, Korner-Bitensky, in the absence of research evidence, involved whether the Desrosiers et al., 2007). countermeasure has characteristics associated with success- + Bike fairs, rodeos (no relevant research; has characteris- ful or unsuccessful measures. For example, in the Voluntary tics associated with successful programs). Action Group, programs targeting children would be con- - Driver training about sharing the road with bicycles sidered likely to work. (no relevant research; does not have characteristics associated with successful programs). - Teaching bike rules/safety in driver education (no rele- Voluntary Action vant research; does not have characteristics associated + Child pedestrian supervision training for caregivers with successful programs). (research lacking; has characteristics associated with - Education encouraging bicyclists to increase their con- successful programs). spicuity (no relevant research; does not have character- + Child safety clubs (the mostly European research base istics associated with successful programs). does not have clear-cut findings; has characteristics - Education to encourage pedestrians to increase their associated with successful programs) (West, Sammons, conspicuity (no relevant research; does not have charac- and West, 1993; Gregersen and Nolen, 1994; Dragutinovic teristics associated with successful programs). and Twisk, 2006). - Driver education in regard to pedestrians (no relevant + Bicycle education for children (research lacking; has research; does not have characteristics associated with characteristics associated with successful programs). successful programs). 0 School-based alcohol education programs to reduce - Programs to teach driver awareness about motorcyclists drinking and driving (insufficient evidence from re- (no relevant research; does not have characteristics search; does not have characteristics associated with suc- associated with successful programs). cessful programs) (Stewart, 1999; Elder, Nichols, Shults - PI&E about driver fatigue (no relevant research; does et al., 2005; Shope, Elliott, Raghunathan et al., 2001; not have characteristics associated with successful D'Amico and Fromme, 2002). programs). - PI&E for elderly drivers (no relevant evaluations; does - PI&E about distracted driving (no relevant research; not have characteristics associated with successful does not have characteristics associated with successful programs). programs).

OCR for page 33
34 - PI&E on sleep disorders for general population and + Belt use as part of graduated licensing (limited research physicians (no relevant research; does not have charac- evidence) (Goodwin, Wells, Foss et al., 2006). teristics associated with successful programs). 0 Motorcycle licensing laws, especially in regard to having + Employer programs for shift workers, medical interns a valid license (some limited evidence that programs (insufficient research; has characteristics associated with can increase licensure) (Braver, Kufera, and Volpini successful programs). et al., 2007). + Alternative transportation for alcohol-impaired drivers 0 Comprehensive belt laws versus laws with significant ex- (weight of evidence suggests positive effects) (Lacey, ceptions (no relevant research, e.g., on extent to which Jones, and Anderson, 2000; Rothschild, Nastin, and belt laws that cover rear passengers increase belt use; does Miller, 2006). not have characteristics associated with successful laws). 0 Designated driver programs (research evidence incon- 0 Keg registration laws (positive but inconclusive evidence clusive; does not have characteristics associated with they reduce crash rates; does not have characteristics as- successful programs) (Ditter, Elder, Shults et al., 2005). sociated with successful laws) (Grube and Stewart, 2004). - Motorcycle helmet use promotion programs (no rele- 0 Medical advisory boards for elderly drivers (no relevant vant research; does not have characteristics associated studies; some likelihood that medical advisory boards with successful programs). can assist licensing agencies in evaluating people with - PI&E regarding drinking and motorcycling (no relevant medical conditions/functional limitations affecting research; does not have characteristics associated with driving ability). successful programs). - Aggressive driving laws (no relevant research; does not - Education to encourage motorcyclists to increase their have characteristics associated with successful laws). conspicuity (no relevant research; does not have charac- - Driver fatigue and distracted driving laws (no relevant teristics of successful programs). research; does not have characteristics associated with 0 Programs to help police detect impaired motor- successful laws). cyclists (no relevant research; facilitates the enforce- + Referring elderly drivers to licensing agencies (limited ment process). research; likelihood that states establishing and publi- - Communications and outreach regarding impaired cizing referral procedures will increase referrals). pedestrians (no relevant research; does not have charac- + Elderly licensing screening and testing (limited research; teristics associated with successful programs). likelihood that model guidelines can identify with rea- - Extreme fear and scare tactics in youth programs (no rel- sonable accuracy those whose driving should be cur- evant research; has characteristics thought not to be as- tailed) (Staplin and Lococo, 2003; Staplin, Lococo, Gish sociated with successful programs) (Elliott, 2005; DeJong et al., 2003). and Wallack, 1999). + Elderly licensing restrictions (weight of evidence suggests 0 High school driver education (not leading to early learning/ restrictions lower crash risk) (Vernon, Diller, Cook et al., licensing). 2001). + School bus training for children (no relevant research; has characteristics associated with successful programs). Laws Plus Enhancements + Aggressive driving enforcement (weight of evidence sug- Laws, Regulations, and Policies gests positive effects) (McCartt, Leaf, Witkowski et al., + General cell phone laws (mixed research evidence, short- 2001; NHTSA, 2002; Stuster, 2004; Davis, Bennink, term effects that may or may not last depending on Pepper et al., 2006). enforcement and publicity; has characteristics associ- + GDL enforcement (weight of evidence suggests positive ated with successful laws) (McCartt, Hellinga, and Geary, though limited effects) (Goodwin, Wells, Foss et al., 2006; McCartt and Hellinga, 2007). 2006). 0 Open container laws (scant evidence; does not have char- - Enforcement of pedestrian rules (for both drivers and acteristics associated with successful laws) (Stuster, pedestrians; limited research); one study showed no Burns, and Fiorentino, 2002). effect on driver yielding; does not have characteristics + Lower BAC limit for repeaters (weight of evidence sug- associated with successful programs (Britt, Bergman, gests positive results) (Hingson, Heeren, and Winter, and Moffat, 1995). 1998; Jones and Rodriguez-Iglesias, 2004). - Enforcement of bike rules (for both bikers and drivers) + Cell phone laws as part of graduated licensing (limited (no relevant research; does not have characteristics as- research evidence). sociated with successful programs).

OCR for page 33
35 + Enforcement against unapproved motorcycle helmets sanctions) (Goodwin and Foss, 2004; Williams, (no relevant research; has characteristics associated with 2007b). successful programs). 0 DUI fines (limited evidence suggests no effects in reduc- ing alcohol-impaired driving) (Century Council, 2003). 0 DUI jail (weight of evidence suggests no positive effects) Sanctions and Treatments (Wagenaar, Zobek, and Williams, 2000). + Vehicle forfeiture (no relevant research; has characteris- + High BAC sanctions (limited evidence suggests positive tics associated with successful sanctions). effects on recidivism) (McCartt and Northrup, 2004). 0 GDL penalties (limited unsupportive research; does + DWI courts (results are mixed, some positive, some not) not have characteristics associated with successful (Guerin, 2002).