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49 APPENDIX C Countermeasures Likely to Work Voluntary Action Laws Plus Enhancements Responsible beverage service (Shults, Elder, Sleet et al., Integrated enforcement (Jones, Joksch, and Lacey, 1995; 2001; Holder, Gruenewald, Ponicki et al., 2000) Hingson, McGovern, Howland et al., 1996) Parents guiding teen licensing (Simons-Morton, 2007) Zero-tolerance enforcement (Jones and Lacey, 2001) Vendor compliance checks for age-21 enforcement (Stewart, 1999) Laws, Regulations, Policies Sustained seat belt enforcement (Hedlund, Preusser, and Ice cream vendor ordinance (Hale, Blomberg, and Preusser, Shults, 2004; Glassbrenner, 2005) 1978) Local primary seat belt laws (NHTSA, 2007b) Sanctions and Treatments Adult bike helmet laws (Ginsberg and Silverberg, 1994; Robinson, 1996; Scuffham, Alsop, Cryer et al., 2000) Increased belt use law penalties (Houston and Richardson, License renewal policies (Morrisey and Grabowski, 2005) 2006) for drivers 85 and older with in-person renewal Simplifying and streamlining DUI statutes (no references License actions for underage alcohol violations (Ulmer, but has obvious potential for producing a more effective Ferguson, Williams et al. 2001) and efficient DUI control system)