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50 APPENDIX D Proven Countermeasures With No Crash or Injury Reduction Calculations Voluntary Action (2002) found that belt use increased by 8.6% in states that used paid advertising extensively in their enforce- Child bicycle helmet promotions: (Wood and Milne, 1988; ment campaigns, 2.4% across four states that used lim- Bergman, Rivara, Richards et al., 1990; Van Houten, ited paid advertising, and 0.5% in states that used no Van Houten, and Malenfant, 2007). All studies based on paid advertising. high-quality community programs. Sanctions and Treatments Laws, Regulations, Policies Restrictions on plea bargains: Convictions are increased, BAC test refusal penalties: Produces fewer refusals (Zwicker, recidivism may also be reduced (NTSB, 2000). No nu- Hedlund, and Northrup, 2005), which may increase merical estimates available. DUI convictions. Court monitoring: Cases less likely to be dismissed, more Speed limits: Clear evidence that raised speed limits on likely to be guilty judgments (Shinar, 1992); more stud- high-speed roads increase fatalities; lowered speed lim- ies needed to derive numerical estimates. its reduce fatalities (TRB, 2006). Close monitoring of DUIs: There are many types, e.g., in- tensive supervision, home confinement with electronic monitoring, dedicated detention facilities, individual Laws Plus Enhancements judicial oversight. Reductions in recidivism, numerical Saturation patrols for alcohol-impaired driving: Increase estimates not established (Voas and Tippetts, 1990; arrests (Greene, 2003; Century Council, 2003), although Lapham, Kapitual, C'de et al., 2006; Jones, Wiliszowski, number estimates not available; no studies of effects on and Lacey, 1996). crashes. Brief interventions--alcohol: Reduces drinking and self- Preliminary breath test devices: Increase arrests to un- reported driving after drinking (D'Onofrio and Degutis, known extent; effect on crashes unclear (Century Coun- 2002; Moyer, Finney, Swearingen et al., 2002; Wilk, cil, 2003). Jensen, and Havighurst, 1997); some evidence of crash Passive alcohol sensors: Increase arrests at checkpoints and reductions (Dill, Wells-Parker, and Soderstrom, 2004). possibly increase general deterrence (Kiger, Lestina, and License plate impoundment: Reduces recidivism; numerical Lund, 1993; Ferguson, Wells, and Lund, 1995); effects estimates not established. on crashes unclear. Vehicle immobilization, vehicle impoundment: Reduces PI&E supporting enforcement of seat belt laws: Paid adver- recidivism; numerical estimates not established (Voas, tising increases belt use. Solomon, Ulmer, and Preusser Tippetts, and Taylor, 1997, 1998; DeYoung, 1997, 1998).