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34 CHAPTER 4 Recommended Management Policies, Procedures, and Practices to Improve Nighttime and Daytime Work Zone Safety FHWA and every state and local highway agency share a The critique in that report included an assessment of the fol- desire to improve safety in highway work zones. The findings lowing considerations for each strategy under those objectives: presented in the previous chapters of this report, as well as past studies, indicate that work zones have significant negative Types of work zone crashes targeted; safety consequences. Agencies strive to minimize these adverse Expected effectiveness; safety consequences as much as possible while maintaining Keys to success; traffic mobility and accomplishing the tasks that necessitate Potential difficulties; the need for the work zone in the first place. Simply put, work Appropriate measures and data and associated needs; zones present competing objectives of maintaining a high Organizational, institutional, and policy issues; level of safety for workers and the public, minimizing adverse Implementation time considerations; traffic impacts, and accomplishing the work task on time, Costs; within budget, and of appropriate quality standards. Agencies Training and other personnel needs; attempt to address work zone safety concerns through the Legislative needs; and development and adoption of various strategies. Typically, Compatibility with other strategies. such strategies are implemented as work zone policies, pro- cedures, and/or practices to be followed during work zone In general, the expected effectiveness of these various planning, design, and implementation. strategies to reduce work zone crash risks was described in A recent comprehensive NCHRP publication recommended qualitative terms (52). Few, if any, of the strategies have been a systematic process intended to reduce the frequency and formally evaluated in terms of their ability to mitigate in- severity of traffic crashes during roadway work zone opera- creased work zone crash potential. The crash data collected as tions (52). The process was developed around the AASHTO part of this research were seen as an opportunity to further Strategic Highway Safety Plan, and utilizes a traditional assess the potential effectiveness of these strategies. problem-solving framework of problem identification, goal Given that this study relied on projects that had already and objective setting, identification and selection of alternatives, been implemented in the field, the opportunity to systemati- implementation, and evaluation (53). The NCHRP document cally evaluate the effects of any particular strategy or group of also summarizes and critiques a comprehensive list of strate- strategies was extremely limited. In many cases, it was not gies, organized under six main objectives, intended to reduce clear from the available project documentation which strategy work zone crashes. The specific strategies are organized under or strategies were in fact utilized for a particular project or the the following objectives: extent to which those that were in effect were properly and thoroughly applied. In other cases, data necessary to estimate Reduce the number, duration, and impact of work zones, how the lack of a particular strategy would have impacted Improve work zone traffic control devices, crashes were also not available. For example, an analysis of Improve work zone design practices, the crash reduction potential of accelerated construction Improve driver compliance with work zone traffic techniques would require information on the expected proj- controls, ect duration without the techniques applied as well as the Increase knowledge and awareness of work zones, and actual duration that was achieved with the techniques used. Develop procedures to effectively manage work zones. It would also require information on any changes in the