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54 1998 version of the MMUCC relative to the work zone data As was the case for the state crash report form approach, elements, and it is not known at this time if any have adopted there are a number of terms and conditions that can be stated the latest 2003 version. For state highway agencies that rely on that are essential for this approach to be considered an effec- the state crash reporting system to collect work zone crash tive option: data, implementation of the MMUCC at the state level will provide essentially all of the advantages those states now re- The highway agency must develop comprehensive report- alize in terms of obtaining work zone crash data through their ing forms for reporting crashes and accidents occurring on state crash reporting system, but with the significant added agency projects. These forms can standardize the coding advantage of capturing more detailed and more consistent and entry of data elements needed about the crash or acci- work zone characteristics in the reports. dent not captured on the standard state crash report form. For the data elements to be available, the state agency re- As part of the collection process, a mechanism is needed to sponsible for the statewide crash data form must first imple- match the highway agency's collected data on its report ment the MMUCC. Once this is in place, the MMUCC will form with the data collected on the state crash report form provide the specific major advantage of collecting much more (relevant for all traffic crashes investigated). detailed work zone crash data than most of the non-uniform Agency management must commit to providing the re- state systems now in place. While the MMUCC will provide sources needed to collect the work zone crash and accident a greatly improved level of data in most cases, the other data, to analyze it in a timely manner, and to utilize it effec- necessary terms and conditions listed above for the existing tively to manage work zone safety and mobility. state report forms are also applicable to use the MMUCC Mechanisms are needed to ensure that the agency-collected data. work zone crash reports are forwarded to the highway agency in a timely manner, and individual crash reports should be available to the highway agency personnel on a State Highway Agency-Based Crash near-immediate basis for critical crashes when requested. Data Collection and Reporting Such critical reports would typically include fatal crashes Currently, some states have internal systems in place for within a work zone and serious crashes directly involving collecting work zone crash data elements using their own per- the work operation or personnel. sonnel or contractor personnel at the project sites. In at least The crash reporting procedure should include a reasonably one case, non-crash worker industrial accidents are collected low reporting threshold such that most work zone crashes as well. Development of a work zone crash data collection and are captured in the police crash reports. archival system within an agency does appear to provide the The reporting system should include provisions to capture most effective means to compile complete data on work zone serious non-crash accidents occurring on project sites. crashes. When combined with the availability of police crash These would include serious injuries to workers (hospital reports based on the MMUCC guideline and the ability to treatment may be a useable threshold), accidents resulting link crashes to project, program, and traffic characteristics, in substantial property damage or environmental damage, such a system can provide the complete range of information and "near-miss" accidents that did not result in serious needed for an agency to determine statewide work zone crash consequences but clearly had the potential to be much trends, and/or the need to modify or enhance work zone poli- more severe. A typical example would be the overturning cies, procedures, temporary traffic control plans, etc. When of a large crane that missed workers and vehicles traveling non-crash worker industrial accidents are included in the sys- through the project, or the rupture of a large natural gas tem, it also provides the ability to assess the overall safety of transmission line. the agencies' construction and maintenance programs. The highway agency must develop clear-cut procedures to While this approach offers the opportunity to obtain the ensure the collection and dissemination requirements of most detailed work zone crash and characteristics data, tai- the work zone crash report data are known and correctly lored to the specific needs of an agency, it is not without a few followed by all agency staff having responsibilities for its disadvantages, mostly related to increased costs and efforts by implementation. Typically, this includes training of the in- the highway agency to implement and continuously manage. volved staff as needed and ensuring that adequate quality Furthermore, if this type of approach is to be successful in al- control procedures are established. lowing comparisons across states, it will be necessary for A critical quality control component needed is the establish- AASHTO or a follow-up NCHRP effort to promote the use ment of back-up procedures to alert project staff to crashes of a uniform set of work zone data elements (as described in and work accidents that occur on nights and weekends and the next section) by highway agencies (an approach that is at other times when agency staff are not present. A close similar in concept to the MMUCC effort). working relationship with law enforcement personnel at