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55 the project level can be critical to capture such crashes. (MUTCD), "Component Parts of a Temporary Traffic Control Contract provisions can be included to require contractors Zone," is reprinted as an MMUCC appendix. Minor revisions to report non-crash accidents and incidents directly to to these definitions are discussed in the next section. agency staff to permit the agency to follow up with its re- Four sets of attributes are provided with this data element porting procedures. C19 to provide specific detailed information relating the Buy-in to this approach will need to be obtained from the crash to the work zone and its specific characteristics. state division office of FHWA. Subfield #1 indicates whether or not the crash occurred in Finally, a periodic agency summary of the work zone crashes or near a work zone, given the choices of "yes," "no," and and accidents should be prepared and circulated through- "unknown." When the attribute is "yes," three additional sub- out the agency as a way to distribute lessons learned and to fields are used to enter additional information. gain a consensus on needed changes in agency-level work Subfield #2 defines the location of the crash, with the zone policies and procedures. choices of: Before the First Work Zone Warning Sign, Recommended Model Work Zone Advance Warning Area, Crash Report Data Elements, Transition Area, Attributes, and Definitions Activity Area, and MMUCC Guideline Data Elements Termination Area. and Attributes--2003 Edition Subfield #3 identifies the type of work zone, given the fol- The 2003 MMUCC criteria include much of the informa- lowing choices: tion that is considered desirable to document work zone crashes in a manner that makes it feasible to manage traffic Lane Closure, safety and some aspects of mobility in work zones. A full list Lane Shift/Crossover, of all 111 MMUCC data elements appears in Appendix C; Work on Shoulder or Median, those thought to be most directly critical to work zone man- Intermittent or Moving Work, and agement are identified in the column "Work Zone Critical." Other. Several of the 111 elements actually include several sub- fields, such that the total number of data elements is con- Subfield #4 addresses the presence of workers, providing siderably more than 111. Each of the 111 data elements and the choices of "yes," "no," and "unknown." associated subfields includes a range of specific data attri- Several other data elements can also be used to provide butes that are fully described in the MMUCC guideline. Sev- data addressing work zone conditions, although all of them eral data elements relate directly to work zones, and several apply to crashes in general and are not limited to use in work others address various work zone attributes in a less direct zone crashes. These other elements and the attributes that manner. These elements and attributes are discussed in this may be applicable are presented in Table 23. section. In addition to those discussed in the table, the MMUCC Only one of the 111 data elements in the MMUCC is used guideline includes numerous other data elements that are use- solely to describe work zone attributes. Data element C19 is ful in describing the characteristics of work zone crashes. These defined as follows: include such elements as C8--Manner of Crash/Collision Impact, C12 Light Conditions, and several elements describ- C19. Work Zone-Related (Construction/Maintenance/Utility): ing injuries resulting from a crash, characteristics of persons Definition: A crash that occurs in or related to a construction, and vehicles involved, and others that are potentially valuable maintenance, or utility work zone, whether or not workers were actually present at the time of the crash. `Work zone-related' in addressing work zone safety concerns. Overall, this guide- crashes may also include those involving motor vehicles slowed line provides a very detailed and comprehensive description or stopped because of the work zone, even if the first harmful of highway crashes that includes much of the information event occurred before the first warning sign. considered important to effectively manage work zone safety and, to some extent, mobility. Even so, there are a number of Combined with definitions of work zone and work zone specific revisions that can be suggested to enhance its useful- crash also provided in the MMUCC, this definition of "work ness for managing work zone safety. With consideration of zone related" describes what would typically be regarded as the revisions discussed in the next section, this guideline can work zone crash events. To further clarify this definition, Fig- become even more effective as a system for recording work ure 6C-1 of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices zone crash data.