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56 Table 23. MMUCC data elements relevant to describing work zone traffic crashes. Element Element Attribute Discussion Number Name C6 First Harmful This element includes attributes to describe various collision and non-collision Event events. The attribute "thrown or falling object" could be used to describe the involvement of construction debris falling from a bridge or from construction vehicles or equipment. The attribute "collision with work zone/maintenance equipment" and the attribute "collision with a pedestria n" could apply to highway workers, including flaggers. Also included are "collision with impact attenuator/crash cushion" and "collision with other traffic barrier." C13 Roadway One of the available attributes is "mud, dirt, gravel," which can be used to Surface describe conditions sometimes encountered in work zones. Condition C15 Contributing One of the available attributes is "work zone (construction/maintenance/utility)," Circumstances, which can be used to identify possible contribution of a work zone to the Road occurrence or outcome of a crash. V2 Motor Vehicle This element contains a choice of attributes to identify vehicle type, including Type and "working vehicle/equipment." This attribute can be used to identify vehicles and Number equipment involved in the work zone operation. V17 Traffic Control One of the available attributes is "person (including flagger, law enforcement, Device Type crossing guard, etc.)," which can be used to identify work zones where flagger traffic control was present at the crash location. V20 Sequence of This data element includes several attributes that can be used to identify safety Events features commonly found in work zones. These attributes include "traffic sign support, impact attenuator/crash cushion, concrete traffic barrier, and work zone/maintenance equipment." V21 Most Harmful This data element includes the same attributes as V20. Event for This Motor Vehicle P3 Person Type This element includes several attributes that can be used to characterize highway workers involved in crashes, including "motor vehicle driver and passenger, and non-motorist categories including pedestrian and occupant of motor vehicle not in transport (parked, etc.)." P22 Non-motorist Attributes include "working, approaching or leaving motor vehicle, and playing Action Prior to or working on motor vehicle." Several other attributes may also be used to Crash describe worker actions prior to a crash. P23 Non-motorist Attributes include "in roadway (standing, on knees, lying, etc.)" and several others Action at Time that may be useful to describe worker actions at the time of a crash. of Crash P25 Non-motorist The list of attributes for this element can be used to describe the location of a Location at worker at the time of a crash, in terms of standard highway terminology. Time of Crash Available choices include "in roadway (not in crosswalk or intersection), shoulder, sidewalk, roadside, and outside trafficway," as well as several others. P26 Non-motorist Attributes include "helmet and reflective clothing (jacket, backpack, etc.)," which Safety can be used to identify worker use of hardhats and high-visibility apparel. Equipment RL2-9 and Roadway These data elements all describe common highway design elements, safety 11-18 Elements features, and operating characteristics and highway classifications that may be of considerable interest in managing work zone safety and mobility. Included are such attributes as lane and shoulder widths, intersection characteristics, access control, roadway lighting and pavement markings, and traffic volumes. Suggested Revisions to MMUCC markings, and/or work vehicles. It extends from the first warning Guideline Definitions sign or flashing lights on a vehicle to the END ROAD WORK sign or the last traffic control device. A work zone may exist for short The first category of suggested revisions to the MMUCC ad- or long durations and may include stationary or moving activities. dresses a number of definitions that are not consistent with commonly used highway terminology, and in some cases are in- This definition is very consistent with the MUTCD, although consistent with the MUTCD and other highway guidelines and shortened slightly. A slight revision to "flashing lights on a standards. The first of these is the basic definition of the work work vehicle" would clarify this definition and make it even zone itself. The guideline definition of "work zone," which very more consistent with the MUTCD definition. closely parallels the definition in the MUTCD, is given as: A second critical definition is that of "work zone crash," stated in the guideline as: Work Zone--An area of a highway with highway construc- tion, maintenance, or utility work activities. A work zone is typ- Work Zone Crash A Work Zone Crash is a traffic crash in ically marked by signs, channelizing devices, barriers, pavement which the first harmful event occurs within the boundaries of a