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57 work zone or on an approach to or exit from a work zone, result- A third critical definition is that of "work zone related ing from an activity, behavior or control related to the movement crashes," which is stated as: of the traffic units through the work zone. Includes collision and non-collision crashes occurring within the signs or markings in- Work Zone-Related Crash--A crash that occurs in or related dicating a work zone or occurring on approach to, exiting from or to a construction, maintenance, or utility work zone, whether adjacent to work zones that are related to the work zone. For ex- workers were actually present at the time of the crash or not. ample: 1) An automobile on the roadway loses control within a Work zone-related crashes may also include those involving work zone due to a shift or reduction in the travel lanes and crashes motor vehicles slowed or stopped because of the work zone, even into another vehicle in the work zone, 2) A van in an open travel if the first harmful event was before the first warning sign. lane strikes a highway worker in the work zone, 3) A highway con- struction vehicle working on the edge of the roadway is struck by This definition is consistent with the definition typically ap- a motor vehicle in transport in a construction zone, 4) A rear-end plied by most highway agencies and does not require revision. collision crash occurs before the signs or markings indicating a In addition to these three basic definitions, 18 other defi- work zone due to vehicles slowing or stopped on the roadway because of the work zone activity, 5) A pickup in transport loses nitions were identified that involve work zone features. Some control in an open travel lane within a work zone due to a shift or of these are not inconsistent with standard terminology in the reduction in the travel lanes and crashes into another vehicle which MUTCD and other highway-related standards, and others exited the work zone, 6) A tractor-trailer approaching an intersec- need to be expanded or clarified to clearly describe common tion where the other roadway has a work zone strikes a pedestrian work zone features. These additional definitions are discussed outside the work zone because of lack of visibility caused by the work zone equipment. Excludes single-vehicle crashes involving in Appendix D. working vehicles not located in trafficway. For example: 1) A high- way maintenance truck strikes a highway worker inside the work Suggested Revisions to MMUCC Data site, 2) A utility worker repairing the electrical lines over the traf- Elements and Attributes ficway falls from the bucket of a cherry picker. In addition to the suggested revisions to guideline defini- This definition is very comprehensive and includes all tions, there are also a number of data elements and attributes types of crashes involving vehicles either within a work zone that would benefit from minor revisions such that they can or upstream of the advance warning area if the crash was in- more adequately describe work zone features and character- fluenced by traffic backups and queues or other activity istics. These revisions are summarized in Table 24. within the work zone. However, this definition could be fur- ther clarified by adding a sentence stating: "This definition in- cludes all crashes that occur within a work zone, whether or Inherent Limitations in the MMUCC not workers are present and work is actively underway." Guideline While all of the examples included in the definition are In addition to the suggested revisions to the 2003 edition clearly work zone crashes, all of them involve motor vehicles, of the MMUCC guideline, three inherent limitations were and it is not clear if accidents involving a pedestrian, bicyclist, identified that impact its usefulness for managing some as- or other non-motor vehicles would be considered a work pects of work zone safety, and these limitations may be diffi- zone crash unless a motor vehicle is also involved. It is desir- cult to overcome within the existing framework of the able that this issue be clarified to include any events involving MMUCC guideline. a pedestrian, bicyclists, or other non-motor vehicle traveling The most critical limitation is that this guideline focuses through a work zone as a work zone crash, regardless of entirely on work zone crashes and does not address non-crash whether or not a motor vehicle is involved. Managing such events. Non-crash events that are routinely of interest to events is an important aspect of work zone safety manage- highway agencies in managing the overall safety and impacts ment, especially in urban areas where pedestrians and bicy- of highway work include: cles are common, and data concerning these accidents are an important part of a crash data system. Industrial accidents occurring in a work zone (falls, work- It is expected that this definition can be easily revised to ad- ers struck by equipment, trench collapse, etc.); dress this issue. However, whereas police response to vehicle Near-miss accidents resulting in only minimal injuries or crashes is typically expected, this may not always be the case property damage but with clear potential for more severe for accidents involving pedestrians and bicycles unless a more consequences; serious injury with a motor vehicle is involved. While revising Worker exposure to toxic materials; this definition may result in capturing some of these events, Contacts with utilities (electrical transmission lines, gas it is likely that the MMUCC guideline will be less sensitive to mains, etc.) with the potential to cause injuries or property pedestrian and bicycle accidents than to crashes involving damage or disrupt service; and motor vehicles, and a highway-agency-based reporting system Harmful environmental events such as release of hazardous may be better able to capture such events. waste or debris into the environment.

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58 Table 24. Recommended enhancements and revisions to MMUCC data elements and attributes. Element Element Suggested Attribute Revisions Number Name C6 First Harmful While the attribute "thrown or falling object" can be used to describe Event construction debris, it would be helpful to add an additional new attribute "construction debris/material" for this purpose. Likewise, the attribute "pedestrian" would presumably include highway workers and flaggers. However, it would be helpful to include this as a separate attribute "construction/maintenance worker/flagger." The existing attribute "work zone/maintenance equipment" should be revised to read "work zone/maintenance equipment or vehicle." It is suggested that an additional attribute "work vehicle with portable crash cushion attached" be added to permit tracking crashes involving shadow vehicles equipped with truck-mounted attenuators. The definition associated with the attribute "impact attenuator/crash cushion" does not distinguish between permanent and work zone devices. It would be helpful to revise this attribute to "impact attenuator/crash --permanent" and to add a new attribute "impact attenuator/crash cushion--work zone." The attribute "other traffic barrier" as currently defined can be used to include a wide range of work zone safety devices but is not consistent with standard highway terminology. A revised definition of this attribute is provided in Appendix D. In addition, it is suggested that two additional attributes be added to identify commonly used work zone barriers. These are "temporary work zone concrete barrier--non-moveable" and "temporary work zone concrete barrier--moveable." It is suggested to add a new attribute under fixed objects: "construction features--excavation/trench/material stockpile, etc." C19 Work Zone- Under Subfield 2, location of crash includes attributes for each of the work Related zone areas, as well as for before the first work zone sign. It would be helpful (Construction/ to revise the current attribute for "activity area" to three new attributes Maintenance/ including "activity area--traffic space," "activity area--workspace," and Utility) "activity area--buffer space." Definitions for each of these attributes should be added to the definitions, using the current definitions in MUTCD Figure 6C-1. Under Subfield 3, the attribute "lane shift/crossover" should be separated into two distinct attributes because these are not similar work zone types. A new Subfield 5 is recommended for "workspace intrusion," with three attributes provided as "yes," "no," and "unknown." A definition for work zone intrusion should be added, as noted in Appendix D. V20 Sequence of The attribute "work zone/maintenance equipment" under "collision with Events person, motor vehicle, or non-fixed object" should be expanded to "work zone/maintenance vehicle or equipment." V21 Most Harmful The attribute "work zone/maintenance equipment" under "collision with Event for This person, motor vehicle, or non-fixed object" should be expanded to "work Motor Vehicle zone/maintenance vehicle or equipment." P26 Non-motorist Under Subfield 1, revise the attribute "helmet" to "helmet or hardhat." Safety Equipment The MMUCC does not currently address any of these types A second limitation, which may be problematic for some of events, unless they are related to a traffic crash, and even then, work zone events, is the focus on events involving motor detailed information about the event is not included as attrib- vehicles, while not clearly including non-vehicle events in- utes that would be collected via the MMUCCC guideline. Given volving pedestrians or bicycles. This limitation may be the goals and objectives of the current guideline and its existing addressed to some extent by revising the existing guideline, format and structure, a major revision would be required to ad- but even with the suggested revisions, it appears that these dress such events. It is considered more practical to address such non-vehicle events may not be addressed as completely as needs through agency-based reporting systems and other would be desired. This limitation is discussed above under sources of event reporting that are already in place to address the suggested revisions to the definition of "work zone crash." such events through such venues as the Occupational Safety and The third significant limitation is that most of the linked Health Administration (OSHA) reporting requirements, insur- roadway data elements RL1RL18 provide information on ance company and construction company records, and report- roadway features that are also of interest in work zone ing requirements of various other state and federal agencies. crashes. However, because these data elements are obtained