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59 by linkage to roadway inventory files, it is expected that the employees, regardless of the location. It also includes crashes attributes recorded will be those normally present when no and accidents on highway permit work sites administered by work zone is present. However, some or all of these attributes the Construction Division. A separate, less detailed system may be changed during some or all of the time the work zone not directly linked to this one is used to report crashes and ac- is present. Reliance on this linked data thus has a high likeli- cidents in maintenance work zones staffed by agency mainte- hood of providing incorrect data for work zone crashes. nance employees. This system is not applicable to work zones A major revision would be required to the guideline to address administered by toll roads or by local highway agencies in this limitation, and it does not appear likely that it can be New York State. addressed within the existing framework. The basic requirements for the latest iteration of this system, Considering these limitations, reliance exclusively upon the implemented in 2004, are set forth in that agency's construc- MMUCC data elements and state crash report forms may not tion procedures manual (5). It defines the purpose of this generate all work zone crash and accident data elements reporting system as "to keep executive management informed deemed essential to managing work zone safety. Even if all the of developing situations, to define the scope of safety related MMUCC data elements and attributes are adopted by a state problems, and to identify corrective action." This system pro- and all enhancements suggested in this report to better cap- vides for electronic reporting directly by project field office ture work zone crash data are also adopted, a highway-agency- staff of crashes and accidents meeting the criteria in the ref- based reporting system may still be desirable to better capture erenced procedure. Individual reports are maintained in the full range of data elements considered important. project files, regional office files, and the central office where they are used to generate various reports for use in managing work zone and construction safety, including the preparation Data Element Considerations of annual reports to summarize safety-related issues. of Highway-Agency-Based Crash Reporting requirements for this system address nearly all Reporting Systems crashes and accidents that occur on an agency construction Some states have implemented work zone crash and acci- contract, as well as all accidents involving Construction Divi- dent reporting within the highway agency. Examples of re- sion employees, regardless of where they occur. The following porting forms for three such states (Florida, Maryland, and describes event types that are covered by this reporting system: Louisiana) are provided as examples in Appendix E. These data are supplemented by police accident reports. Immediate Notification Required NYSDOT has implemented a much more comprehensive Any injuries to NYSDOT construction employees, system for reporting work zone crashes and other accidents All accidents involving state-owned vehicles and private that occur on its construction projects. Termed the "Con- vehicles used on state business, struction Accident Reporting Program," this system was Any fatal or hospital transportation to consultant or con- initiated in the mid-1980s and has been expanded and refined tractor employee directly related to construction activity, several times to increase the information compiled and Traffic accidents resulting in fatal or multiple (three or improve timeliness of reporting and analysis of the data for more) personal injuries, if directly related to construction use in agency-wide management of work zone safety and activity or the maintenance and protection of traffic, mobility. This system requires a major commitment of re- Any utility incidents, and sources by the agency and is believed to represent the most Any accident resulting in media attention. comprehensive database of this nature now available nation- ally. While it addresses many of the crash and accident data Notification Required as Soon as Possible needs discussed in the preceding sections, a potential major Any traffic accident involving maintenance and protection drawback of this system is that it is unique to this agency and of traffic, but not resulting in fatal or multiple (three or does not utilize the MMUCC guideline or any other stan- more) personal injuries, dardized reporting format. This will make it difficult to com- Any traffic accident within the project limits resulting in a bine and compare data between states. Such a capability fatality or personal injury, but not related to construction would be extremely helpful to projects such as this one and activity or within limits of active M&PT, other efforts to examine work zone safety and mobility ques- Any construction-related accident resulting in minor tions and issues on a national basis. It is noted that this sys- worker injury or damage to private property, and tem is applicable to crashes and construction accidents that Any near miss accident. occur on department-administered construction projects, whether on the state highway system or local highways, and A user manual defines the procedure for entering crash also any crashes or accidents involving Construction Division and accident data into the electronic Construction Accident

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60 Reporting Program, written in Visual Basic/Crystal Reports. In spite of the significant strengths of this program, it appears It also details how reports are to be transmitted and stored that it also entails a number of potential weaknesses, especially within the agency, and periodic management reports gener- in terms of the development and implementation of the elec- ated by the system track the completion and follow-up of tronic reporting system: individual accident reports. This manual provides a partial list of the data elements and attributes included in the pro- The user manual provided for the reporting system ap- gram, but it does not provide an overall comprehensive list. pears to omit specific instructions for some portions of Appendix D provides a list of the NYSDOT data elements and the system. Based on a review of the reports submitted attributes compiled from the user manual and the database since the current reporting system was implemented, there itself. are clearly inconsistencies in how some of the elements are The NYSDOT Construction Accident Reporting Program, reported. in its current form, offers a number of specific advantages for The methodology of using true/false attributes for a num- the management of work zone safety and mobility: ber of data elements is cumbersome and confusing. For ex- ample, rather than providing a single data element for It is based on management's commitment to the report- "manner of crash," followed by a list of several allowable ing of all crashes, accidents, and other incidents related attributes defining the various manners of crash, the cur- to the agency's construction program, and use of the rent program includes several elements that use a true/false data to manage and improve safety in the construction attribute. Adding further to the confusion, these elements program. are not grouped together within the system. Procedural guides and user manuals have been developed The data elements in the system do not provide a compre- to assist in the uniform implementation of the program. hensive list of all possible manners of crash, consistent with The program provides for immediate or rapid reporting of those in the MMUCC guideline. all such incidents up through the agency chain of command. A number of closely associated data elements are not lo- An electronic reporting program provides for data entry at cated together in the form, increasing the risk of incorrect the field office. The overall system provides for distribution or inconsistent reporting. of reports throughout the agency as appropriate and gener- The data element for work zone intrusion is inconsistent ation of various management reports on a systematic basis. in that it appears to classify both workspace intrusions and Other reports, such as police accident reports, are appended certain other crashes involving workers and work vehicles/ to these reports. equipment as intrusions even when they do not occur in An extensive "accident file" is assembled for serious acci- the workspace. dents to assist in defense of any claims, to develop corrective The records do not clearly indicate the involvement of measures, and for various other purposes. most work zone traffic control devices and safety features This system provides for statewide data availability and in a crash, except as noted in the narratives. This may pre- analysis for the preparation of agency-wide summary clude automated sorting of the records to identify all such reports. crashes and may even fail to identify some of these crashes. In addition to traffic crashes involving vehicle collision, The unique and cumbersome coding system included in this system captures virtually all harmful or potentially the current program makes it extremely difficult to com- harmful events that occur on construction or permit proj- bine the New York data with data available from other ects, or involving Construction Division employees. This states and other work zone crash data sources. includes construction accidents; accidents or crashes in- The coding system also makes it extremely cumbersome to volving pedestrians, bicycles, and motorcycles; incidents query the database to identify specific crash and accident involving damage to or contacts with utility infrastructure; types and characteristics, other than those specific data and off-site accidents involving Construction Division elements and attribute factors now included in the report- employees. ing program. The reporting program includes detailed data elements There are no specific data elements and lists of attributes to and attributes designed to provide specific information describe construction accidents involving workers. While considered necessary to the management of the agency's this information can be obtained from the narrative de- construction program. scriptions, a specific data element to identify construction These reports can be linked to other data available within accident attributes would be a very helpful feature. the agency such as traffic volumes, roadway inventory, A number of other potential concerns are mentioned in the construction program attributes, and others as deemed discussion of the individual data elements and attributes necessary. provided in Appendix F.