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67 certain aspects of the work zone more closely. However, the Efforts to reduce flaggers' exposure to traffic; and more subtle effects of particular work zone design decisions or Efforts to reduce workspace intrusions and limit their operating strategies can only be assessed through a more rigor- consequences at long-term, high-volume work zones. ous analysis across multiple projects and longer exposure peri- Agencies should consider establishing their own data col- ods, typically after the projects have been completed. lection, archival, and analysis procedures for work zone crashes. The specific data elements to collect and the meth- ods used to collect those data will depend on what other Recommendations data elements are already being collected through the state The results of this research have led to a number of rec- crash report form. Crash report forms that have most or all ommendations that agencies should consider as they strive to of the MMUCC data elements that were recommended for improve work zone safety in their jurisdictions. In addition, work zones in Chapter 5 may require agencies to collect a number of questions raised in this report have generated only a few additional items in the event of a work zone recommendations for future research that should be consid- crash. Crash report forms that do not include most of the ered as well. These are enumerated below: key data elements identified will necessitate the collection of more of the data by the highway agency. In either case, At a minimum, agencies should evaluate their current poli- it is important that both sources of data be accessible on a cies and procedures to encourage consideration of the fol- crash-by-crash basis to facilitate subsequent analysis. lowing strategies during design and implementation of For significant projects, agencies should consider estab- work zones in their jurisdiction: lishing procedures to monitor crashes occurring during Practices to reduce work zone duration and number of construction in a way that allows agency personnel to work zones required; quickly ascertain whether an excessive number of crashes Use of full directional roadway closures via median are occurring at specific locations or during certain times crossovers or detours onto adjacent frontage roads; within the project. Use of time-related contract provisions to reduce con- This research suggests that intrusion crashes, especially struction duration; those that involve highway workers, are a relatively small Moving appropriate work activities (i.e., those that subset of work zone crashes. However, when they do occur, require temporary lane closures) to nighttime hours, they are more likely to result in injuries and fatalities to especially on high-volume roadways; motorists, passengers, and/or highway workers. Additional Use of demand management programs to reduce vol- research is recommended to further define the significance umes through work zones; of the work zone intrusion crash problem and to conduct Use of enhanced traffic law enforcement; studies to determine the extent to which various proposed Consideration of incorporating future work zone countermeasures reduce such intrusions. capacity into highway designs; Finally, this research has yielded a rich multi-state database Use of full roadway closures that require traffic detours of work zone, roadway, and crash data. Although extensive onto adjacent surface streets, where adequate capacity is analyses of that dataset were performed as part of this re- available on alternative routes; search, there are likely many other questions about work Use of ITS strategies to reduce congestion and improve zone crash safety that could be examined using these data. safety; It is recommended that steps be taken to make these data Improvement of work zone traffic control device available to other researchers or students looking for re- visibility; search topics related to work zone safety issues.