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11 CHAPTER 2 Primer on Hazardous Air Pollutants In addition to PM, measurements during APEX and from recent documents (URS 2003; FAA 2005). For more informa- older military engines indicate the presence of hazardous tion on the human health effects of HAPs, see EPA's Inte- air pollutants (HAPs), alternatively referred to as air toxics. grated Risk Information System ( HAPs are regulated by the EPA based on the cancer and non- In addition to aviation, many sources emit HAPs, including cancer risk they pose with acute or chronic exposure. Volatile ground transportation, construction, power generation, and organic compounds (e.g., toluene), chlorinated volatile dry cleaning. At airports, several sources contribute to HAPs organic compounds (e.g., tetrachloroethylene), and metals emissions. A partial list of "airside" sources includes baggage (e.g., nickel) are three classes of HAPs. As dictated by the tugs, solvent use, and the aircraft themselves. Benzene and Clean Air Act, the EPA maintains a list of HAPs. Additionally, formaldehyde are two commonly known aircraft engine for mobile source emissions, the EPA maintains a "Master List HAPs. Airport "roadside" sources include on-road vehicles of Compounds Emitted by Mobile Sources." Measurements of (cars, buses, shuttles, etc.). A separate ACRP study has ex- ambient HAP concentrations are not as widespread as those amined the issue of airport HAPs emissions and provides the of the criteria pollutants. Descriptions of individual HAPs and results in ACRP Report 7: Aircraft and Airport-Related Haz- their sources and emissions at airports have been provided in ardous Air Pollutants: Research Needs and Analysis.