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35 APPENDIX C Bibliography for the Literature Survey Aksit, I. M. and J. B. Moss, "Model fuels to reproduce the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX); no impact of air- sooting behavior of aviation kerosene." Fuel. 84. Jan-Feb port was discernible. 2005. Boulter, P. G., A Review of Emission Factors and Models Researchers designed model fuels which exhibited similar for Road Vehicle Non-Exhaust Particle Matter. Published sooting behavior to that of aviation kerosene. Project Report PPR065. TRL Limited. 2005. http://www. airquality.co.uk/archive/reports/reports.php?action Aristotle University. PARTICULATES. Characterisation of category§ion_id8 Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Vehicles. Deliver- able 8: Measurement of Non-exhaust Particulate Matter, A detailed report conducted by TRL Limited investigating Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics. 2004. http://lat. non-exhaust PM from road traffic. The goal is to improve eng.auth.gr/particulates/downloads.htm prediction methods for emissions and air pollution. The report is broken down into five phases: a literature review, emission This report is part of the 3-year PARTICULATES project, model development and application, initial air quality model launched in April 2000, which aimed to collect and analyze development and application, further air quality model de- PM in a scientific and technical manner. This portion of the velopment and discussion of abatement options. report focused on non-exhaust PM, including: tire wear, brake wear, clutch wear, road surface wear, corrosion of Broughton, M., "Check in for carbon trading." Engineer vehicle body/components, and corrosion of street furniture/ (London). 293(16). Jan 15-28, 2007. signs/etc. Editorial arguing the attention and criticism which Avia- Barbosa, S., et al., Air Monitoring Study at Los Angeles In- tion gets for polluting is disproportionate to its percentage ternational Airport. South Coast Air Quality Management contribution to total emissions. District. Oct 1999. Bruno, T. J. and B. L. Smith, "Improvement in the measure- AQMD conducted a study to address concerns about the ment of distillation curves. 2. Application to aerospace/ pollutant levels to which LAX staff may be exposed; although aviation fuels RP-1 and S-8." Industrial & Engineering PM10 24-hour measurement levels at LAX exceeded the Chemistry Research. 45(12). Jun 7, 2006. South Coast Air Basin averages on most sampling days, these levels were still below federal ambient PM10 standards for Demonstrated new measurement method and applied it to 24 hours. two common types of fuel. Barbosa, S., et al., Air Monitoring Study of Felton and Lloyd Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc. LAX Master Plan--Technical Schools. South Coast Air Quality Management District. Report Deposition Monitoring. Mar 1998. Sep 2001. Data collected at the six monitoring stations tend to elimi- Studied VOC, carbonyls, carbon (organic and elemental), nate the airport as the major deposition source for the areas di- and metals; school is in the prevailing wind trajectory of rectly adjacent to the airport; the deposition rate data implicates
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36 freeway traffic for high daytime concentrations; copper com- Inventory Conference. June 8-10, 2004. http://www.epa. position data indicates that a small fraction of the total deposi- gov/ttn/chief/conference/ei13/ tion seen in the daytime is potentially from aircraft braking. This paper summarizes the difference between the EPA's Chan, C. Y., et al., "Characteristics of vertical profiles and older PART5 model, released in 1995, and their new sources of PM2.5, PM10, and carbonaceous species in Beijing." MOBILE6.2 model, released in 2004. Both models are used Atmospheric Environment. 39(28). Sep 2005. to estimate exhaust, brake wear, and tire wear particulate matter emissions. Fugitive dust from construction adds to the particulate matter problems of Beijing but gives no clear values as to the Green, J. E., "Civil aviation and the environment--the next role of construction compared to other emission sources. frontier for the aerodynamicist." Aeronautical Journal. Construction PM tends to be larger than PM2.5. 110(1110). 2006. Eden, R., et al., Air Monitoring Study in the Area of Los In addition to the work being done to reduce emissions Angeles International Airport. South Coast Air Quality through optimization of engines, progress towards a cleaner Management District. Apr 2000. fleet could be done through the improvement of the aerody- namic properties of aircraft. This is mostly done through op- Key compounds detected in the study are associated with timizing the aircraft for fuel efficiency. mobile sources; all key compounds are lower at residential sites than at Aviation and Felton School sites, which are influ- Green, J. E., "Future aircraft--greener by design?" Meteor- enced by emissions from major highways; fallout samples ologische Zeitschrift. Aug 2005. depict greater abundance of larger-than-PM10-sized combusted oil soot particles than is observed at most other locations in This paper considers what might be achieved within the the South Coast Basin. next 50 years by advances in aircraft and engine technology and by a shift in design priority from minimizing costs to Gerilla, G. P., K. Teknomo, and K. Hokao, "An environmen- minimizing environmental impact of air travel. In U.K. Air tal assessment of wood and steel reinforced concrete hous- Travel--Greener by Design initiative is the response of the ing construction." Building and Environment. July 2007. civil aviation community to this environmental challenge. There are substantial research programs in Europe and the Article provides a comparison of the life-cycle costs of United States aimed at low NOx combustor technology wooden housing to steel reinforced concrete. The work com- (mostly focused on emissions near the airports). Trade Off: pared the life-time emissions for construction through useful Increased pressure ration Low fuel burn and high NOx. life of both types of construction using a hybrid input-output This constitutes a tradeoff between NOx emissions and CO2 model to capture the PM emissions. This research did not emissions (which vary with fuel burn). The evidence to date attempt to measure PM (or any emissions) directly and used suggests that success is more likely at the medium pressure ra- a model to capture the emissions of the components of each tios of small engines than at the high pressure ratios of the method of construction. large engines typical of long-range aircraft. Goldman, A., "Soot and Odor," KM Chng Environmental Hoffnagle, G., Community Impact of Aircraft Particle Emis- Inc. Airport Air Quality; Approaches, Basics & Challenges. sions. TRC Environmental Corp. Fall 1996. Institute of Transportation Studies. University of California, Berkeley. 2005. Chemical mass balance analysis of particles collected with deposition plates on Logan Airport (BOS) and in commu- Summary of soot studies at several airports concluded that nities surrounding the airport; airport sources examined in- studies to date have shown that deposits have been made up cluded engine swipes and tire wear/brake wear; materials of fungus, minerals and soil, particles from wood burning, from examined sources represented up to 8.5% of fallout col- particles from automobile and diesel truck exhausts, or gen- lected on airport site; materials from community sites repre- eral urban contamination. While there may be a very small sented less than 0.3% of fallout. contribution from aircraft exhaust in the deposits in the neighborhoods, the deposits are almost entirely made up of Karcher, B., "Aviation-produced aerosols and contrails." non-aircraft-related components. Surveys in geophysics. 20(2). 1999. Granell, J., C. Ho, et al. Analysis of MOBILE 6.2's PM Emis- Review of "current" (1998) knowledge about aerosols and sion Factor Estimating Function. 13th International Emission contrails.
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37 Kinsey, J., K. Linna, W. Squier, G. Muleski, and C. Cowherd Method one: ANCAT/EC2 1991/92 inventory construc- Jr., "Characterization of the fugitive particulate emissions tion ANCAT/EC2 2015 inventory forecast. Construc- from construction mud/dirt carryout." Journal of the Air tion: Aircraft movements database, a representation of the and Waste Management Association. 54(11). Nov 2004. global fleet in terms of aircraft and engines, a fuel flow model, calculation of emissions at altitude from fuel flow, Cars driving over the mud/dirt carryout from construction and landing and takeoff emissions data. Forecast: Global air can be a source of construction-related PM as cars re-suspend fleet forecast by the U.K. Department of Trade and Industry. particles from this dirt. The measurements of PM10 are within Use past development trends to forecast future engines/ the EPA current emission factors, but PM2.5 was found to aircraft. Applied trends in fuel efficiency. Emission perfor- be lower than expected. In these test areas, the PM2.5 emis- mance of the forecast fleet was determined by the response sions are overshadowed by car exhaust rather than the mud to an assumed regulatory scenario: Results: Drop in NPX carryout. emissions. Method two: The FESG 2050 Aircraft Emission Scenarios. K. M. Chng Environmental Inc. Summary of Two Logan Compared their original results to the results found by other Soot Studies. Fall 1996. researchers using this technique. Method one and two have comparable results. There were no ongoing chronic soot impacts from airport- related activity either for departing or arriving aircraft or from Lee, J. J., S. P. Lukachko, I. A. Waitz, and A. Schafer, Histor- other Logan activity; there were no indications of raw jet fuel ical and Future Trends in Aircraft Performance, Cost, and in the soot samples analyzed; the contribution of inorganic Emissions. 2000. particles from brake wear and tire wear drop off rapidly and are not observed in the nearby communities. Emissions per aircraft reduced by 3.3%; air traffic is in- creasing by 5.5%. E in MJ/RPK (mega joules/revenue passen- Kugele, A., F. Jelinek, and R. Gaffal, Aircraft Particulate ger kilometer) is forecast to decline by 1.2%2.2% a year in Matter Emission Estimation Through All Phases of Flight. the future. Eurocontrol Experimental Centre. EEC/SEE/2005/0014, 2005. Legret, M. and C. Pagotto, "Evaluation of pollutant loading in the runoff waters from a major rural highway." The Sci- A study of PM emitted by aircraft broken down into three ence of Total Environment. 235:143150. 1999. "work packages": literature review, review and development of a method to estimate PM emissions from aircraft through This study examined the pollutants found in runoff water all phases of flight, implementation of the method into an from a 275-m (902-ft) motorway during a 1-year study, con- MSAccess-based module linked to EUROCONTROL's sisting of approximately 50 rain events. Included in this AEM III. study is a comparison of estimation of pollutant emission from vehicle traffic, which includes tire and brake emission Langley, I. D., et al., "Using NOx and CO monitoring data to estimates. indicate fine aerosol number concentrations and emissions factors in three U.K. conurbations." Atmospheric Environ- Metcalfe, J. L., G. W. Fischer, et al., Auckland Air Emissions ment, 39(28). Sep 2005. Inventory: 2004. Auckland Regional Council. Technical Pub- lication 292. 2006. http://www.arc.govt.nz/arc/publications/ The authors' work determined that NOx and CO is heavily technical-publications/arc-technical-publications.cfm. correlated with PM emissions through a series of equations. These equations can be adjusted to reflect the uniqueness of This report estimates the emissions in the Auckland area the NOx and CO monitoring situations. Using these correla- from four major sources: transportation, domestic, industry, tions, the authors suggested potential road transport PM and biogenic. The study puts an emphasis on ambient air pol- emissions factors though the PM factors may need to be eval- lutants: PM10, NOx, CO, VOCs. uated and changed to consider seasonal variations. Metts, T. A., S. A. Batterman, G. I. Fernandes, and Lee, D. S., et al., "Aviation emissions: Present-day and P. Kalliokoski, "Ozone removal by diesel particulate future." Meterologische Zeitschrift. 11. 2002. matter." Atmospheric Environment. 39(18). Jun 2005. Paper compared two different methods of estimating emis- Examined the ozone removal capacity of fresh diesel soot sions. The methods concentrated on measuring emissions particles. Diesel soot is expected to remove only a small por- based on fuel consumption. tion of O3 from urban/tropospheric and indoor air.
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38 Muleski, G., C. Cowherd Jr., and J. Kinsey, "Particulate aircraft, vehicles, and equipment during war and peace times. emissions from construction activities." Journal of the Air Substituting JP-8 for diesel oil No-2. Primary goal of paper is and Waste Management Association. 55(6). June 2005. to contrast emissions of two emissions that were comparable for both fuels. The emissions factors for heavy construction have re- mained unchanged since their publication in 1975. Using Ruijgrok, G. J. J., Elements of Aircraft Pollution. IOS Press. construction sites in Kansas, the authors measured the PM 2005. (PM10 and PM2.5) emissions of construction activities. The work focused on earthmoving machines as their use consti- Book about aircraft pollution. Attention has been concen- tutes 70% to 90% of the PM emissions associated with con- trated on emissions at ground level near the airport (CO and struction. PM10 measurements were significantly higher than unburned hydrocarbons which appear to be dominating at low AP-42 would have estimated and the effects of mud carryout thrust setting) with great success. Considerable efforts to lower were lower than expected. There was less PM2.5 than expected. emissions were made by changing the combustion process. The dirt path of the loaded and empty earthmover is the por- tion of construction with the highest PM emissions. A lower Sanders, P., N. Xu, T. Dalka, and M. Maricq, "Airborne portion of the emissions are based in the diesel exhaust when brake wear debris: Size distributions, composition, and a compared to loading and unloading. comparison of dynamometer and vehicle tests." Environ- mental Science and Technology. 37:40604069. 2003. National Environmental Technology Centre (Netcen), Gatwick 2010 Baseline Emission Inventory (Public Access This paper summarizes the findings of two experiments on Version). Reference: AEAT/ENV/R/1791/Issue 1. 2006. http:// brake emissions. Three experiments were conducted: one www.gatwickairport.com/portal/page/LGW%5EAbout using a brake dynamometer, another using a wind tunnel, BAAGatwick%5EPublications/ and another on a test track. This study expands on a previous study conducted by the same authors by providing data on This report provides a forecast of atmospheric emissions particle size distributions, analyzing the brake wear debris from London Gatwick airport in 2010, the year the European composition, and comparing the dynamometer results to the Union will begin to limit values for NO2 for its member states. wind tunnel and test track results. This study is similar to the 2002/03 emission inventory except results are forecast predictions. South Coast Air Quality Management District. Inglewood Particulate Fallout Study Under and Near the Flight Path to National Environmental Technology Centre (Netcen), Los Angeles International Airport. Sep 2000. Gatwick Emission Inventory 2002/3 (Public Access Version). Reference: AEAT/ENV/R/1569/Issue 2. 2006. http://www. Combusted oil soot particles were not present in abun- gatwickairport.com/portal/page/LGW%5EAboutBAA dance in the majority of samples collected during the study, Gatwick%5EPublications/ but no conclusions can be drawn from this finding due to the limited sampling period; the composition of the fallout is This report provides the methodology and data used to consistent with that typically found in other areas of the generate an inventory of emissions at London Gatwick air- Basin; there is no discernible pattern of either carbon mass or port for the period spanning June 1, 2002 to May 31, 2003. total fallout mass under LAX's flight path that would indicate This study focuses primarily on NOx and PM10 emission from a predominant influence from aircraft fallout; the concentra- the following sources: aircraft in the landing and takeoff tion and growth of gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicle traf- phase, airside vehicles/plant, road vehicles on landside airport fic in and around the airport is a concern from an emissions roads (and surrounding network), car parks and taxi queues, impact perspective. heating plant, and fire-training ground. Stolzenbach, K. D., et al., Measuring and Modeling of At- Rakopoulos, C. D., D. T. Hountalas, and D. C. Rakopoulos. mospheric Deposition on Santa Monica Bay and the Santa "Comparative environmental evaluation of JP-8 and diesel Monica Bay Watershed. Institute of the Environment. fuels burned in direct injection (DI) or indirect injection University of California, Los Angeles, and K. Schiff, et al., (IDI) diesel engines and in a laboratory furnace." Energy & Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Sep Fuels. 18(5). 2004. 2001. In recent years, NATO and U.S. military forces have decided Annual rate of atmospheric transport and deposition of to implement a single fuel (JP-8) for all land-based military trace metals to Santa Monica Bay is significant; most of the
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39 mass of metals deposited by dry deposition on Santa Monica International Airport 2015 Master Plan Expansion Project Bay and its watershed originates as relatively large (>10 mi- EIS/EIR. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics. crons) aerosols from area sources (off-road vehicles and small University of California at Los Angeles and Boyle, K.E., businesses); for metals the most important sources of emis- Department of Organismic Biology, Ecology, and Evolu- sions to the atmosphere are nonpermitted area sources. tion. University of California at Los Angeles. July 1998. Suarez, et al., Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Monitoring Study commissioned to characterize aircraft emissions in During the Ft. Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport the vicinity of Los Angeles International Airport; jet aircraft Air Runway Overlay Project. Broward County Environmen- exhaust apparently does not contribute significantly to the tal Protection. Department, Air Quality Division. Ambient saturated hydrocarbons found in the atmospheric particles, Monitoring Section. Aug 31Oct 21, 2004. soils, plant surface, and water samples evaluated from the area of potential effect; saturated hydrocarbons present in Concentrations of PM2.5 experienced at sampling site samples appear to be comparably influenced by regional under the temporary flight path were higher than at sampling atmospheric deposition; with the exception of vanadium, site under the normal flight path (unused during overlay aerial deposition of trace metals and boron is occurring project); however, the differences were consistent during nor- in the El Segundo Dunes at levels that are consistent with mal operations, which suggests that the differences are not de- studies of other urban areas; concentrations of trace ele- pendent on the increased air traffic caused by the resurfacing ments in ambient PM10 were within expected values for of the primary runway at FLL; changes in concentrations at urban locations. the two sites mimicked each other, which may be indicative of the material contained in the air mass over the broader area. Whellens, M. W. and R. Singh, "Paper 7111: Propulsion System Optimization for Minimum Global Warming Poten- Unal, A., et al., "Airport related emissions and impacts on tial." Proceedings of ICAS 2002 Congress, Toronto, Canada. air quality: Application to the Atlanta International Air- 2002. port." Atmospheric Environment. 39(32). 2005. Analysis of how turbofan engines would be designed if they The emissions estimation focused on PM2.5 using FOA1.0 were optimized for the environment rather than fuel con- for each mode of aircraft operation. The authors also speci- sumption. The results of the study show that, with the given ated the PM emissions into elemental carbon (66%), organic relationship between emissions and global warming poten- carbon (29%), sulfate (4.6%), and nitrate (0.32%). They de- tial, a turbofan engine optimized for minimum cruise global termined that the ground support equipment (GSE) was warming potential is characterized by lower operating pres- more influential in local air quality than the aircraft even sures and temperatures than those found in a turbofan opti- though the GSE emitted less pollution. The approximation mized for minimum cruise SFC (specific fuel consumption). method used in the research affected the results dramatically. Although this makes it a fuel-inefficient solution, it is also By using FOA1.0 in a mode-specific manner and spatially dis- shown that a better SFC performance can be retained by tributing the emissions, the final conclusion was that aircraft choosing solutions that are close, but not coincident, to the are not the driver for PM problems in the Atlanta area. The mathematical optimum for global warming potential. study evaluated traffic for select days in August 2000. Yan, S. H., E. G. Eddings, A. B. Palotas, R. J. Pugmire, and United Kingdom, Department for Transport, Project for A.F. Sarofim, "Sooting tendency of HC liquids in diffusion the Sustainable Development of Heathrow--Air Quality flames." Energy and Fuels. 19(6). Nov-Dec 2005. Technical Report. June 2007. http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/ aviation/environmentalissues/ secheatrowsustain/ Discusses methods for predicting soot emissions of partic- ular fuels. A collection of findings from technical panels set up by the Department for Transport in 2004 to find ways to improve Zanini, G., et al., "Concentration measurement in a road the air quality around Heathrow Airport. The three technical tunnel as a method to assess `real-world' vehicle exhaust panels were assigned to investigate dispersion modeling emissions." Atmospheric Environment. 40(7). 2006. (Panel 1), monitoring of air pollution (Panel 2) and emission source data (Panel 3). Authors ran buses for 8 hours in a closed tunnel with dif- ferent fuels to measure PM changes over time and driving Venkatesan, M. I., Analysis of Hydrocarbons and Trace Met- conditions outside a laboratory environment. Other pollutants als in Environmental Samples in Support of Los Angeles were measured as well.
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40 Zannis, T. C. and D. T. Hountalas, "DI diesel engine perfor- from a SI Engine. Experimental Findings, Formation Path- mance and emissions from the oxygen enrichment of fuels ways and Modeling of Combustion Processes. with various aromatic content." Energy & Fuels. 18(3). 2004. For this paper, researchers tested emissions for fuels with Paper examines effect of fuel oxygen enhancement with varying air/fuel equivalence ratios. various aromatic content on pollutant emissions. Result: Fuel The emissions of all hydrocarbons generally decrease with oxygen addition appears to be more effective in the reduction the addition of oxygenated compounds except sometimes in of soot CO and HC emissions (higher NOx emissions when the case of methane, ethane, and cyclohexane. Under rich oxygenated additives). conditions the relative increase of exhaust methane and ben- zene is more important than the other saturated hydrocar- Zervas, E., X. Montagne, J. Lahaye, Influence of Fuel and bons. Some hydrocarbons are correlated with the physical Air/Fuel Equivalence Ratios on the Emission of Hydrocarbons properties of the fuel and other exhaust pollutants.