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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 9 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Summarizing and Interpreting Aircraft Gaseous and Particulate Emissions Data

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James Crites DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Unison Consulting Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, John K. Duval Charlottesville Beverly Municipal Airport Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Steve Grossman Oakland International Airport Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Tom Jensen Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento National Safe Skies Alliance Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Catherine M. Lang Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Federal Aviation Administration Technology, Atlanta Gina Marie Lindsey Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Los Angeles World Airports Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Carolyn Motz Hagerstown Regional Airport Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Richard Tucker Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Huntsville International Airport Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Sabrina Johnson C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Richard Marchi Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Air Transport Association of America Henry Ogrodzinski Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC National Association of State Aviation Officials Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA American Association of Airport Executives Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, Transportation Research Board National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT SECRETARY LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Christopher W. Jenks Interior, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS David Kelly, Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Thomas J. Madison, Jr., Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2008. *Membership as of October 2008.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 9 Summarizing and Interpreting Aircraft Gaseous and Particulate Emissions Data Philip D. Whitefield, Prem Lobo, and Donald E. Hagen MISSOURI UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CENTER OF EXCELLENCE FOR AEROSPACE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS REDUCTION RESEARCH Rolla, MO IN ASSOCIATION WITH Michael T. Timko and Richard C. Miake-Lye AERODYNE RESEARCH, INC. Billerica, MA Christine Taylor, Gayle Ratliff, Stephen Lukachko, Chris Sequeira, James Hileman, and Ian Waitz MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Cambridge, MA Sandy Webb ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING GROUP, LLC Annapolis, MD Theodore G. Thrasher, Melissa R. Ohsfeldt, Hong K. Kaing, and Stephane C. Essama CSSI, INC. Washington, D.C. Subject Area Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 9 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 02-04A portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN: 978-0-309-11760-9 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2008910032 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2008 Transportation Research Board airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT PERMISSION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 9 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christine L. Gerencher, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen Chafee, Assistant Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-04A PANEL Field of Environment Mary L. Vigilante, Synergy Consultants, Inc., Seattle, WA (Chair) Keith L. Beasley, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston, MA Anuj Bhargava, Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, CT Alison Bird, Federal Express Corporation, Mesa, AZ Elizabeth Leavitt, Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, Seattle, WA John R. Pehrson, Camp, Dresser and McKee, Inc., Irvine, CA Carl Ma, FAA Liaison Sabrina Johnson, EPA Liaison Tim A. Pohle, Air Transport Association Liaison Jessica Steinhilber, Airports Council InternationalNorth America Liaison Chowen Chou Wey, Department of the Army Liaison

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FOREWORD By Christine L. Gerencher Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 9: Summarizing and Interpreting Aircraft Gaseous and Particulate Emissions Data provides a summary of a series of government-sponsored aircraft emissions tests that were undertaken to gain a better understanding of gaseous and particulate emissions from aircraft engines. Copious amounts of data were collected as part of this scientific effort, known as the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) tests and Delta Atlanta Harts- field test. This report summarizes the data gathered in these studies to help the airport community and general public understand how the data can be used to develop better air quality assessments in the airport environment. The APEX and Delta Atlanta Hartsfield series of tests were a collaborative scientific research effort of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the De- partment of Defense (DoD). Their main objective was to advance the understanding of particulate emissions by characterizing gaseous and particulate emissions from various in- service commercial aircraft engines. The participants in these tests performed an extensive set of measurements aimed at examining the effect of engine operating and ambient atmo- spheric conditions on emissions; simulating emissions at airports; and studying fuel effects on particulate emissions by varying fuel composition. The first APEX test was conducted in April 2004 to collect a set of gaseous and particu- late emissions data from a DC-8 aircraft with CFM-56-2C1 engines owned by NASA. This test was followed by the Delta Atlanta Hartsfield Study in September 2004 where two MD-88 aircraft with JT8D engines, two B757 aircraft with PW2037 engines, and two B767 aircraft with CF6-80 engines were examined. A third test in August 2005 examined emissions from two B737-700 aircraft with CFM56-7B22 engines and two 737-300 aircraft with CFM56-3B1 engines and a fourth test, conducted in October-November 2005, evaluated emissions from a Learjet25 aircraft with CJ610 engines, an A300-600 aircraft with PW4158 engines, two B757 aircraft with RB211-535E4B Phase 5 engines, an ERJ aircraft with AE3007- A1E engines, an ERJ aircraft with AE3007-A1P engines, and a B737-300 aircraft with CFM56- 3B engines. In addition to the gaseous and particulate emissions measurements from static aircraft tests, there were two occasions when aircraft taxi and take off emissions were measured downstream of an active runway during normal airport operations. One of these was at Oakland International Airport during the second APEX test, known as JETS-APEX2, and the other was at Hartsfield Jackson Atlanta International Airport during the Delta Atlanta Hartsfield Study. These sets of data afforded surveys of the particulate and gaseous emis- sions of a wide range of aircraft.

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Substantial gaseous and particulate emissions data have been obtained from this series of tests, at a cumulative cost of almost $4 million. This report summarizes the extensive data and analyses of the test results to provide clarification for the airport community and gen- eral public on how the data can and cannot be used in the development of local air quality analysis.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Primer on Particulate Matter Emissions from Aviation 5 1.1 What Is PM? 5 1.2 How and Where Is PM Formed at an Airport? 7 1.3 How Are PM Emissions Quantified? 8 1.4 How Is PM Regulated in the United States? 9 1.5 What Are the Most Recent Aviation PM Research Efforts? 9 1.6 Why Are Aviation-Related PM Issues Important to Airport Operators? 11 Chapter 2 Primer on Hazardous Air Pollutants 12 Chapter 3 Primer on Field Studies 12 3.1 APEX1 14 3.2 Delta Atlanta-Hartsfield Study 15 3.3 JETS-APEX2 17 3.4 APEX3 19 Chapter 4 Primer on Models 19 4.1 Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System 19 4.2 MOBILE 19 4.3 NONROAD 19 4.4 First Order Approximation 3.0 20 4.5 Aviation Environmental Design Tool 20 4.6 Aviation Environmental Portfolio Management Tool 20 4.7 Community Multi-Scale Air Quality Model 20 4.8 Microphysical Models 21 Chapter 5 Individual Reviews of Data from the Aircraft Field Measurement Campaigns 21 5.1 APEX1 22 5.2 Delta Atlanta-Hartsfield Study 23 5.3 JETS-APEX2 24 5.4 APEX3 25 Chapter 6 Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions Literature Review 25 6.1 Characteristics of Aircraft PM 26 6.2 Literature Reports on Aircraft PM 26 6.2.1 Relative Contributions from GSE and Aircraft Brakes/Tires 26 6.3 Modeling PM Using EDMS 27 6.4 Current Model Limitations 27 6.5 Mitigation

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28 References 31 Appendix A Details of Measurement Campaigns 33 Appendix B Glossary of Terms 35 Appendix C Bibliography for the Literature Survey 41 Appendix D Additional Supporting Material for Chapter 5: Review of the Data from Measurement Campaigns