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11 and experience in implementing and auditing ICAO Annex reduce the risk of vehicleaircraft incidents and incursions 14-recommended safety management systems (SMS). during winter operations and periods of low visibility. SUMMARY Within this chapter, background information is provided on runway incursions and the risks associated with such events. Chapter one introduces how winter operations pose a unique It further explains current regulations in place under 14 CFR hazard or risk for airports because snow removal vehicles and Part 139 to address the issue. Provided are specific examples equipment are authorized to conduct operations on the move- of runway incursion reports that occurred over one winter ment areas of an airport, including active runways. It outlines season. The reports highlight the varied nature of the incur- the purpose of the study and the research methodology that sion problem and introduce some of the factors causing them. was used, including a literature search, questionnaire distri- bution, and a review of airport snow plans. The objective of the The next chapter provides a brief synopsis of the factors synthesis is to provide a compendium of existing practices, affecting collision risks that was culled from the literature procedures, training, and systems that airport operators use to search and the responses to the questionnaire.