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24 Typically, combinations of these factors contribute to the can go home. This has implications associated with staffing risk of fatigue. For example, a person operating a vehicle at levels. night, after extended hours on the job and with a lack of qual- ity sleep prior to work, would be facing a significantly higher Surprisingly, staffing levels were not cited as a prominent operational or accident risk than someone exposed to only factor by respondents, but certainly staffing levels have a lot one of the fatigue factors. Merely limiting the hours of work to do with "seat time." There seems to be an acceptance within through regulation or by directive does not adequately address airport organizations that staffing levels are set and employees the problem of fatigue. Factors such as time of day, the are expected to get the job done no matter how long it takes. amount of prior rest, and the timing of rest breaks are central Long hours without breaks were commonly cited, more so at to managing fatigue. smaller airports than larger ones. Larger airports appear to be able to rotate individuals, thereby being able to give breaks. The National Road Transport Commission of Australia And even if given a break, several respondents noted how has developed a Fatigue Management Scheme module that, difficult it was to actually rest, in part because of the nature of although focusing on truck and heavy vehicle operators, has the operation (need to stay on top of the snow event or to get implications for airport snow removal operators as well (38). the airport open), the individual being "wired" from too much To qualify for the Fatigue Management Scheme certification, stimulant (caffeine, high activity, etc.), or no place to rest operators and drivers must identify and manage fatigue risk (breaks taken out on the field, in the cold, or in the vehicle). factors such as trip scheduling, driver availability, time work- ing, lifestyle, quality of rest, and driver health standards. Contributing to the fatigue experienced while at an airport, several respondents cited how one spends their time before A key feature of the Australian regulations is the inclusion the snow event as a major factor affecting their abilities. Many of a "chain of responsibility" provision. This refers to the respondents recognized the need for rest beforehand but cited notion that airport organizations, from front-line supervisors the irregular and unpredictable timing of a snow event as to executive management, have responsibility for preventing impacting their need for rest. For instance, if they had little incidents and accidents by implementing fatigue-related rest in the days prior to a snow event, or if they get a call while countermeasures. This is very similar to current FAA efforts sleeping, or if having been sent home early to rest for the pre- to implement SMS at airports. The organization has as much dicted snow event only to not be able to rest because it was responsibility as does the individual employee, if not more out of sync with their circadian rhythm, the sleep disruption so, for alleviating fatigue and stress factors among its combined with stress creates additional burdens affecting their employees. performance and decision making. In reviewing the snow plans of the airports, it became Although long working hours was the primary factor cited, apparent that such fatigue countermeasures were not part of one respondent noted that long working hours might not be so an airport operator's SICP or training regime, nor were they bad if the task of snow removal wasn't so boring at times. Idle even mentioned. A review of separate policy and procedure sitting time waiting for an aircraft operation to be completed manuals for several airports did mention fatigue, but they prods the body to rest. From that rest the body must be jolted did not go into detail as to how to mitigate it. There was no into action when time comes to resume operations. One guidance given for shift duty time, adequate rest time, off- respondent noted how different the transition was from high- duty-related activities, physiological health factors, or other way plowing to airport plowing. On the highway, the vari- similar causes of fatigue. ability and obstacles kept him attuned and concentrating on the task. At the airport, the monotony and repetition of going up and down the runway made it easy to become complacent. FATIGUE FACTORS AND CAUSES Fatigue can impair a driver's decision making and perfor- When asked to list the factors that they had experienced or mance. So can stress--a factor that often contributes to mental thought contributed to driver fatigue or impairment, survey and physical fatigue. Stress emanates from the need to keep respondents identified factors that could be grouped into the the runway open, to not cause harm or damage, to get things following general areas: long work hours without breaks, irreg- done quickly, to satisfy other's demands (bosses, airlines, ten- ular time, stress, boredom, environmental conditions, vehicle ants, landside operations), and by aircraft wanting to operate design and ergonomics, personal health, and staffing. on the movement areas. But according to the survey respon- dents, those are not the only sources of stress. They also cited Long work hours with no breaks was the main factor that home life, job satisfaction, and the drive to work itself (the need many of the respondents to the questionnaire said contributed to get to work in worsening snow conditions) as factors. to the buildup of fatigue, or which resulted in driver impair- ment. Unfortunately, working double shifts seems to be the Stress, of course, affects a person's performance. A little norm in the industry in light of the unpredictability of when stress is beneficial in maintaining alertness. Too much stress, snow events occur and the need to finish the job before anyone however, and a person becomes overwhelmed, ineffective,