Click for next page ( 28

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 27
27 The basic rule is to switch at these times unless vehicle move- CAFFEINE ment started within an hour of one of the start-stop times. Everyone knows that drinking coffee near bedtime can make it This is the operator's time to eat, sleep, and shower. The difficult to get to sleep. What you may not know is that caffeine Authority has kitchen staff that prepares breakfast and lunch. can also disrupt sleep even in people who fall asleep easily after Meal times are 0500-0730 hrs for breakfast. Lunch is from consuming caffeine. For a better night's sleep, avoid caffeine for 11001330 hrs. These times allow for both teams to eat if six hours before bedtime. they choose to. Dinner is at the Marriott located on the airport property. TIPS FOR MAINTAINING ALERTNESS ON THE JOB: Now that you know how to get a good night's (or day's) sleep, here are some other tips to help ward off fatigue and keep you alert: A small-hub airport shares its lessons as follows: Stand up, stretch, and walk around as much as possible. In the past, we used to have the same crews here to work a snow Eat frequently and wisely to prevent low blood sugar. removal operation for as long as it took. There were times when Spend break time under bright lights. the crew spent numerous days on airport property without get- Wearing sunglasses changes the appearance of colors on a dis- ting home. Now, we have attempted over the past few years to play and can increase your chances of mistaking one color for split our crews into separate work crews during different times another. of the day. Due to our decreased amount of traffic here, after Certain medications can affect your color vision. For example, 2300 each day, we attempt to ensure that we have one of our main Viagra (sildenafil) can affect the ability to tell the difference runways cleared and clean for any arrivals/departures between between green and blue. 2300 and 0400. We either give some of the workforce time to get some sleep who are here on site, or have a fresh group of per- This information is presented because many respondents to sonnel who have been home resting get underway with a full field snow removal cleanup starting at approximately 0400 for this synthesis study thought differently about the effects of the morning aircraft operations. This, too, has worked out well these factors. for us. There are also a number of fatigue management technolo- From a non-hub airport, their approach is as follows: gies that are becoming available to help maintain operator alertness and performance levels by detecting operator fatigue This year we are going to have 2 crews so we can have someone and interfacing with the operator and/or supervisor to prevent on the field at all times. They will be on 7-hr shifts. First crew will be on duty while the other crew is on break to eat, shower, accidents and incidents (17, 40). Examples of such technology and sleep (they are paid for the whole time). are eye-gaze detection systems, head-nod detectors, vehicle monitoring systems, in-seat vibration systems, physiology/ Another non-hub airport took the following approach: behavioral devices, and mental reaction time tests. Use of fatigue management technologies in the airport setting was We keep water on the field to keep the drivers hydrated, we try not indicated by any of the respondents to the questionnaire. to give drivers mental breaks between each runway plow opera- tion, and when possible we try to swap out our plow drivers. We Human factors have long been recognized for its role in also have a lot of discussion on the radio from the supervisors to keep staff engaged and on track. producing errors. For winter operations, fatigue is a major human factor that needs to be better addressed in the train- The FAA has produced a report (27) that details some of ing efforts of airport organizations. Recognizing the symp- the factors affecting fatigue in aviation operations. In that toms of fatigue is an SA issue that all vehicle operators and brochure some of the myths and truisms that apply to fatigue airport organizations need to address in their training and are presented. Those factors have the following effects operations. (27, pp. A5A6): SUMMARY ALCOHOL Drinking alcoholic beverages may help you to fall asleep faster, Chapter five discusses how fatigue is widely recognized as a but it will make the quality of sleep that you get worse than it core safety issue in the air transportation industry, with it being would have been if you had no alcohol. on the NTSB's most-wanted list for safety improvements in LIGHT, HEAT, and NOISE aviation. However, fatigue has not been readily studied Sleep in a cool, dark, quiet place. Constant "white noise" (like within airport operations and, in particular, snow removal the hums produced by air conditioners and fans) help to cover up other noises, making them less likely to disturb your sleep. operations. The review of airport snow plans indicated that fatigue countermeasures were not part of an airport opera- PAIN RELIEVERS tor's SICP or training regime, nor were they even mentioned. Some pain relievers can also interfere with getting enough sleep. Recognizing when one is fatigued and taking action to In one study, people who were in no pain and given aspirin or ibuprofen (e.g., Advil, Motrin) before bed, woke up more counter it are two important components of a safe operating often and spent more time awake during the night than when system. The chapter provides a basic understanding of fatigue they took acetaminophen (e.g., Tylenol) or a placebo. and stress and ways to manage each. SMOKING Nicotine is a stimulant and cigarette smoking can interfere with When survey participants were asked to list the factors that sleep. contributed to driver fatigue or impairment, the factors cited

OCR for page 27
28 could be grouped into the following general areas: long work The literature identified factors such as time of day, the hours without breaks, irregular time, stress, boredom, envi- amount of prior rest, and the timing of rest breaks as being ronmental conditions, vehicle design and ergonomics, per- central to managing fatigue. Respondents identified limiting sonal health, and staffing. Stress and its causes are discussed duty time, providing sleep or rest facilities, providing food as a factor affecting human performance. Stress was found to and drink, providing frequent or adequate breaks, rotating emanate from such things as the need to keep the runway assignments, and paying attention to ergonomic conditions open, to not cause harm or damage, to get things done quickly, as all being means to enhance human performance. Properly to satisfy other's demands, and to satisfy demands by aircraft managing fatigue and stress requires both individual and wanting to operate on the movement areas. Other sources of organizational efforts. In this chapter, lessons are shared from stress that were cited were home life, job satisfaction, and the airports as to how they address the collision risk factor of drive to work itself. Stress adds to the fatigue factor. human performance at their airports.