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31 Other suggestions for consideration in mitigating or reduc- · "Limit operator hours." ing incursions are provided by survey respondents as follows: · "[When plowing a runway/taxiway intersection] Clear snow up to the next taxiway [rather than just to the hold · "Make the call signs for vehicles on your airport unique line to prevent turnarounds from entering the runway from each other. Instead of having Operations 1, 2, 3, safety area]." etc.; Plow 1, 2, 3, etc.; and Blower 1, 2, 3, etc.; have · "Specifically ask ATCT for turnarounds from a connec- Operations 11, 12, 13, etc.; Plow 21, 22, 23, etc.; and tor taxiway onto the runway to clear the hold line area." Blower 31, 32, 33, etc." · "[For non-towered airport] All drivers should monitor · "To enhance a vehicle's presence when on a runway, CTAF or assigned frequency [while only one crew mem- turn on driving lights day or night, similar to what large ber communicates with aircraft]. Crew leader makes aircraft operators do when commencing their takeoff assignments and tracks progress. Crew leader verifies roll or landing." all clear, reports the same to aircraft, and directs staff · "After each snow event, have a debriefing with mem- on/off the runway." bers of the snow committee, or at least the ATCT tower · "Place compasses in the vehicles [to enhance SA]." chief to discuss lessons learned. Keep written minutes · "Have operators not accustomed to operating regularly for referral." on the movement area or the AOA drive more frequently · "Install tunable radios that have at least a two-frequency year around [training]." quick switch (flip-flop) capability." · "Require through NOTAM a 10-min notification for prior · "Sound deaden the vehicle cabs. Provide headphones if permission to land [if airport does not have an ATCT]." necessary." · "Maintenance supervisor in the lead vehicle of the snow · "Place FAA-provided airfield signs and marking plac- crew activates a blue light on his vehicle to warn the ards in vehicles." snow crews of a pending aircraft operation." · "Place an airport layout diagram in the cab." · "Provide a writing instrument and pad in easy reach for writing down ATCT instructions." SUMMARY · "Mark vehicle exteriors with large identification numbers." Chapter six addresses the importance of SA as a collision risk · "Issue NOTAMs and inform FSS, TRACON, or CEN- factor. Not having SA increases the possibility for an incursion TER of changes." incident. An overwhelming number of both pilot and con- · "If radio communication is lost between ATCT personnel troller errors can be classified into the category of "loss of sit- and the equipment operators, ATCT personnel should uational awareness." This chapter presents suggestions to rapidly flash the runway lights on and off as a signal for increase one's SA from the literature, FAA guidance material, the operator to clear the runway." and responses from the questionnaire. The application of SOPs · "Repeat all instructions with ATCT." provide a structure that helps to decrease the probability of · "Have one person monitor runway intersections." human error and runway incursion by increasing and main- · "Limit area of operations [to one section or one taxiway taining SA. The chapter emphasizes that training and indoctri- or one runway or one apron area]." nation into the principles of SA can lead to safe outcomes.