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31 Other suggestions for consideration in mitigating or reduc- "Limit operator hours." ing incursions are provided by survey respondents as follows: "[When plowing a runway/taxiway intersection] Clear snow up to the next taxiway [rather than just to the hold "Make the call signs for vehicles on your airport unique line to prevent turnarounds from entering the runway from each other. Instead of having Operations 1, 2, 3, safety area]." etc.; Plow 1, 2, 3, etc.; and Blower 1, 2, 3, etc.; have "Specifically ask ATCT for turnarounds from a connec- Operations 11, 12, 13, etc.; Plow 21, 22, 23, etc.; and tor taxiway onto the runway to clear the hold line area." Blower 31, 32, 33, etc." "[For non-towered airport] All drivers should monitor "To enhance a vehicle's presence when on a runway, CTAF or assigned frequency [while only one crew mem- turn on driving lights day or night, similar to what large ber communicates with aircraft]. Crew leader makes aircraft operators do when commencing their takeoff assignments and tracks progress. Crew leader verifies roll or landing." all clear, reports the same to aircraft, and directs staff "After each snow event, have a debriefing with mem- on/off the runway." bers of the snow committee, or at least the ATCT tower "Place compasses in the vehicles [to enhance SA]." chief to discuss lessons learned. Keep written minutes "Have operators not accustomed to operating regularly for referral." on the movement area or the AOA drive more frequently "Install tunable radios that have at least a two-frequency year around [training]." quick switch (flip-flop) capability." "Require through NOTAM a 10-min notification for prior "Sound deaden the vehicle cabs. Provide headphones if permission to land [if airport does not have an ATCT]." necessary." "Maintenance supervisor in the lead vehicle of the snow "Place FAA-provided airfield signs and marking plac- crew activates a blue light on his vehicle to warn the ards in vehicles." snow crews of a pending aircraft operation." "Place an airport layout diagram in the cab." "Provide a writing instrument and pad in easy reach for writing down ATCT instructions." SUMMARY "Mark vehicle exteriors with large identification numbers." Chapter six addresses the importance of SA as a collision risk "Issue NOTAMs and inform FSS, TRACON, or CEN- factor. Not having SA increases the possibility for an incursion TER of changes." incident. An overwhelming number of both pilot and con- "If radio communication is lost between ATCT personnel troller errors can be classified into the category of "loss of sit- and the equipment operators, ATCT personnel should uational awareness." This chapter presents suggestions to rapidly flash the runway lights on and off as a signal for increase one's SA from the literature, FAA guidance material, the operator to clear the runway." and responses from the questionnaire. The application of SOPs "Repeat all instructions with ATCT." provide a structure that helps to decrease the probability of "Have one person monitor runway intersections." human error and runway incursion by increasing and main- "Limit area of operations [to one section or one taxiway taining SA. The chapter emphasizes that training and indoctri- or one runway or one apron area]." nation into the principles of SA can lead to safe outcomes.