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35 CHAPTER EIGHT VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT RESOURCES Preventing runway incursions requires a multifaceted approach The placement of external vehicle lights has an impact on to addressing all the factors that affect a driver's ability to driver visibility; a location at eye level and angled downward accurately identify where he or she may be located on the air- is the preferred choice among respondents. The next choice port at any given time. The design of vehicles and equipment was placement above the cab. This preference conflicts some- are factors to be examined in reducing the possibility of col- what with a study accomplished in highway use, which stated lision risk or incursion. that lights placed above the cab were not advantageous because they reflected too much light back into the operator's eyes (48). Lights mounted on top of a plow or sweeper are not perceived VEHICLE DESIGN to be beneficial either because of the obscuration from blow- back snow. High-visibility lighted (either by fiber or LED) or The design of a vehicle can have a major impact on a driv- colored rods on the corners of sweepers and plows were er's ability to operate it safely. A primary factor for pre- deemed to help with SA for the driver as they could better venting collisions is the ability to see during winter or low determine the tracking of the attachment. Due to blowing visibility operations. Survey respondents cited blowing and snow or fog, one respondent said having a rear-facing fog swirling snow, night-time operations, frosted-up windows, spotlight on the back of the vehicle is important to prevent and obscured markings and lights as common situations that another vehicle from running into it. One non-hub airport has decreased visibility. Environmental factors affecting visi- installed flashing red halogen lights for that same purpose. bility were previously addressed in chapter four. This chap- Another airport has factory-equipped LED lights. Normal ter considers the design of vehicles and its impact on driver vehicle brake or position lights were deemed inadequate for performance. the purpose of providing adequate alert to a fast-approaching vehicle. A strong opinion of respondents was that high-intensity discharge (HID) lights are the best for cutting through the The type of lights to use and their placement on snow blowing snow and projecting far down the runway or taxiway. removal equipment are areas for more thorough study (49, 50). One operator stated that the ability of HID to have a defined Providing small directional glare shields on lights was found illumination was very beneficial, especially if angled down at to be beneficial. To further reduce glare, it has been found that about 30 degrees from eye level at the cab. The operator stated having just a single spotlight mounted on the passenger side he only uses the HID lights when plowing because the light with the driver side spotlight turned off is advantageous (47). is "whiter" and not yellowish like other lights, especially when reflected by the snow. Halogen lights were preferred as If the vehicle lighting is proper, the next design item respon- the second choice of light. They are less expensive than HID dents frequently commented on were the windshields. The lights, but not as focused in their illumination, and they current design philosophy is to provide as much glass area as require a higher lumen output to achieve the same level of possible. For the front windshield, there are three basic designs: illumination as HID lights (47). Regular vehicle lights or forward-sloped, flat, and reverse-sloped. Reversed-slope spotlights on vehicles were deemed by respondents to be not was respondents' preferred design during winter operations, as effective as either HID or halogen lights. because snow and ice accumulate less readily on it. To counter the accumulation, manufacturers have installed washing fluid Inadequate information exists on the use of light emitting deluge systems that flood the front and side windshields to diode (LED) lights in snow removal equipment or low visibil- remove snow and ice. These were found to be effective by air- ity conditions, though research is advancing on its use in port users. roadway vehicles. One airport identified that their use of LEDs in their rotating beacons were deemed superior to regular The deluge systems pumps heated windshield deicer fluid beacons. LED backup lights or rear-facing lights are avail- through a series of nozzles above the primary and side win- able on some equipment and help prevent rear-end collisions. dows to rid the windows of accumulations and contaminants. The accumulation of ice and snow on LED lights is of concern One non-hub airport maintenance department sprays ice as LEDs do not generate the level of heat to melt ice as do melter on the plow truck windshields with a 2-gal. garden other bulb types. sprayer when the wiper blades accumulate ice or slush. They