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41 Some airport snow crews rely on each other, as follows: resources to comply with the regulations. Airports governed by Part 139 meet the requirement by providing the requisite "Buddy system." training, though quality can fluctuate greatly between airports. "Drivers assist each other by advising each other if they are too close to the edge of pavement, if pavement fric- The requirements for ground vehicle operator training tion is poor, etc." under Part 139.329 are targeted toward preventing or restrict- "Constant monitoring and communication on the radio ing vehicle access to the airport movement areas. Training assists to avoid an incursion. Each vehicle operator requirements for those authorized to operate on the runways maintains his own responsibility to clear on and off the and taxiways consist of using proper radio communication, runway. The operators also try to remind each other." understanding signs and markings, and controlling access. "We have the ATCT dim the lights after an arrival/ Advisory Circular 150/5210-20, Ground Vehicle Operations departure or we click it down manually. Also we have on Airports, provides guidance to airport operators in devel- the drivers look out for one another; if they see some- oping training programs for safe ground vehicle operations one starting to drift or go too far off the pavement they and pedestrian control on the airside of an airport (3). The will check to make sure that person is okay and awake advisory circular does not go into detail on the special cir- and make sure that person knows where he or she is." cumstances encountered during winter snow and ice opera- "Looking out for one another (e.g., reminding of hold tions. For all airports, certificated or not under Part 139, the instructions)." FAA has issued Advisory Circular 150/5200-30, Airport Winter Safety and Operations, which provides guidance to The questionnaire responses suggest that it is at the smaller airport operators as to how to establish an SICP that better non-hub and general aviation airports where the latter addresses the need for training and procedures to prevent responses--looking out for one another--occur. This is due, incursions (12). in part, to fewer vehicles and drivers involved in the snow removal effort and the speed at which those vehicles operate. An SICP is required of airports certificated under 14 CFR It may appear more efficient for the smaller crews to work Part 139. Training of personnel engaged in snow removal somewhat independent of each other, rather than as one operations is a required part of an SICP. In this regard, the tightly controlled group. airport is to assess whether they are staffed adequately with qualified personnel, have a training program that adequately DRIVER TRAINING tracks test records and development of those personnel, and ensures all storm crews have received training on the SICP Training of vehicle operators was a positive factor empha- and trained on new equipment. Additionally, as it relates to sized by a number of airports as a solution to the problem potential runway incursion activities, the SICP is to address of runway incursions. One part of the questionnaire asked how snow crews ensure markings, signs, and lighting systems respondents to identify what type of snow removal operations are legible/visible after clearing operations, and establish training is conducted at their airport. The responses were wide- procedures in case of airfield accidents involving snow clear- ranging. Most airports referenced the requirement under ing crews, aircraft, or other airport vehicles. 14 CFR Part 139 for operator training before gaining access to the movement and safety areas of the airport, which does The airport SICP is to also provide specific procedures for not specifically reference snow removal operating conditions. those periods when the ATCT is closed, or for airports that do As indicated by most responders, the type of training con- not have an ATCT (non-towered airport). Additionally, the ducted consisted of primarily classroom instruction. SICP should contain specific procedures for the following: A common problem stated by operators as affecting oper- Unexpected situations, such as when whiteout conditions ations is a driver's lack of familiarity with the airport: occur while snow-clearing crews occupy the runways. Addressing the possibility for a runway incursion after "Personnel not completely trained in equipment opera- the runway reopens as a result of runway snow removal tion, snow removal game plan procedure, which may operations covering taxiway signs with plowed snow, vary by storm occurrence, time of day, etc." covering taxiway or runway lights, blocking of pilot or "Ninety percent of our operators are plumbers, electri- vehicle operator line of sight, or similar operational cians, carpenters, office workers, and A/C mechanics considerations. that don't have experience on the airfield layout and Procedures requiring continuous coordination among need to be directed to the area that needs to be cleaned." the clearing crew and the snow control center (SCC) or FSS or ATCT facility to ensure the equipment operators The solution rests with the airport through proper training. on runways are aware of their surroundings. Sections 139.303(a) and (b) of 14 CFR Part 139 tie together Training in proper radio communications and for when the requirement for airport operators to provide sufficient, radio communication is lost between crews or when a qualified staff and to equip those employees with adequate single driver loses the radio signal.