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42 Based on survey responses, the primary method of training Readying the Snow Team: personnel for snow removal operations is conducted as part of 3. Training. Give higher priority to training after winters with the normal ground vehicle operations training, which involves below-average snowfall. Provide: primarily classroom training. Targeted winter operations 3.1. Formal classroom lectures, training films, and discus- training is more likely to occur at airports with multi-crew sion periods. 3.2. Ensure operator hands-on training for all snow and ice teams. In training new or inexperienced vehicle operators, control equipment. Perform practice runs with the on-the-job or hands-on training is the more common method. equipment using typical operation scenarios. Substi- The majority of training is conducted in-house. tute water for liquid deicers to reproduce realistic operations. 3.3. Furnish formal instruction on effective and efficient Survey respondents identified the maintenance supervisor anti-icing and deicing with minimal chemical use. or airport operations director as a key individual providing Instruction must cover chemical usage issues, includ- the training. In developing the team concept, however, one ing P2/BMPs, environmental impact, and impact on airport cited that all members of the maintenance and opera- aircraft, weapon systems, and airfield infrastructure. 3.4. Tabletop exercises using miniature equipment on air- tions staff are involved in the process. In conducting dry runs drome layouts to simulate operations and to reduce or hands-on training, pairing a new or inexperienced driver training costs. with a qualified veteran or experienced driver is a prevalent 3.5. Operator maintenance responsibilities, including fuel, practice, followed by an assessment from the maintenance or fluid, supply locations, repair techniques, and heavy equipment maintenance reporting procedures. operations director. Practice dry runs would occur in the fall 3.6. Instruct the operators on communication procedures prior to winter conditions and consist of driving in formation, and right-of-way information. working the ends and the intersections of runways and taxi- 3.7. Details of the SICP, emphasizing the order of priorities. ways, making radio calls, and gaining familiarity with equip- 3.8. An airfield and base familiarization tour highlighting locations where problems are likely. Conduct a night ment controls and operation. tour for night shift employees. 3.9. Duty location, duty hours, duty uniform, shift sched- One airport identified the importance of conducting some ules, and notification procedures. 3.10. Allow for periodic attendance at technology sharing of the on-the-job-training or dry run training at night, since seminars and workshops with other military bases and that is when the majority of snow removal operations occur governmental agencies (i.e., the snow symposium in at that particular airport. Another airport requires the snow Buffalo, New York). removal crews to read the snow plan, read the owner's man- 5.1. Implementing Lessons Learned. The Operations Flight Chief reviews the activity logs at the end of the ual for each piece of equipment, and get hands-on training snow season, determines the problems and successes, from a foreman. and incorporates improvements into the revision of the SICP. Use P2/BMPs proactively to minimize or elim- The following comment highlights a practice that several inate problems. Begin preparing for the next snow removal season at the end of the current season. airports perform: New employees are given both classroom and hands-on training. Training of vehicle operators was a positive factor empha- [We] conduct an annual preseason review of snow removal oper- sized by a number of respondents as a solution to the prob- ations. [We] review snow removal operations after an event. lem of runway incursions. [We] conduct a post-season review of operations. That is, they conduct orientation training, then a special win- DRIVER TRAINING TECHNOLOGY ter preseason training and education session per their SICP, and reinforce all learning by having a debriefing session after The FAA has issued Certalert 02-05, Driver Training Sim- each snow event. ulators, in which they inform the airport community of the existence of driver-training simulators (58). Simulators Other organizational and motivational factors that result allow for in-house training that otherwise would require in a high performance operation are noted in the following actually operating on the movement areas. They have been statement from a survey respondent: found to be effective in developing behaviors that can be transferred to the actual vehicle operation (59). Current Training, experience, and strict adherence to procedures and pro- tocols improve performance. Crew members "graduate" to the state-of-the-art vehicle simulator technology enables train- runway snow removal team. One area to note is that there is very ing in situation awareness, risk analysis and decision little staff turnover. Operators stay until retirement, which results making, emergency reaction and avoidance procedures, and in a very experienced work force. Loyalty is established by fair conscientious equipment operation. There are two types of compensation, excellent equipment and facilities, and input into operational decisions. Equipment procurement and hiring is not simulators: mobile and stationary. Both have advantages encumbered with political undertones. and disadvantages. The U.S. Air Force provides an outline for training of Several airports have purchased full-scale driver simula- snow crews in their Air Force Instruction 32-1002, Snow and tion technology for use in training their employees. The sim- Ice Control (57). ulators are used for the training of personnel with access to