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43 the movement areas of the airport. In particular, the simulator SUMMARY at MinneapolisSt. Paul International Airport uses computer- aided design drawings, geographic information systems Chapter nine conveys survey respondent's replies as to how data, and satellite and other images to create a virtual world they resolved operational problems encountered at airports rel- of the airport and everything on the airfield. The technology ative to reduced visibility, seeing where they are on the airport, used in the system is able to simulate many different condi- or the difficulties in navigating on the airfield when engaged in tions at the airport, including night, day, low visibility, snow, snow plowing, brooming, deicing, or other winter operations. rain, fog, rough terrain, and other features to give trainees Their responses provided insight into the varied operations of the most realistic conditions possible. Other large airports different-sized airports and their organizational structure and have acquired similar technology, primarily for instruction resources. The variety is explained as being related to the phi- in ARFF capabilities, but they are adaptable to snow activity losophy of operation each airport had: either the airport phi- as well. losophy centered on maintaining an active runway for aircraft operations during snow removal activity, or closing the run- The cost of full-scale driving simulators point toward only way for snow and ice removal activity. The different philoso- limited use at those airports having the financial capability to phies represent different approaches to managing risk and the acquire them, as costs can range from $200,000 to $800,000. different benefits that may be derived from that choice. For airports that do not have similar capability or do not want to make the investment in a customized driver training simu- Some airport operators always close the runway while snow lator, there are nonproprietary or generic systems that can be removal operations are being conducted, while other airports used to help develop basic driving skills, SA, and radio com- conduct snow and ice removal operations on an active run- munication techniques. Several truck manufacturers have way in close coordination with ATCT. Close coordination is simulators, including portable ones, for training an operator normally spelled out in an LOA, and requires a good work- on their equipment. Another option is to acquire customized ing and trusting relationship with ATCT personnel. airport-specific desktop computer or video projection capa- bility. A number of medium- to small-hub airports in the Practices are described in this chapter as to how airport United States utilize this type of technology. The FAA has maintenance or operations departments can ensure all vehi- coordinated research efforts to provide a low-cost option by cles have exited the runway prior to allowing aircraft on it. funding the use of a PlayStation 2 video game as a platform The most common method was for an operation or mainte- for adapting software to reflect the Richmond International nance supervisor to perform a runway sweep. Lastly, snow Airport in Virginia (60). Snow removal driver training through removal driver training is discussed along with new simula- the use of simulation technology is evolving and is an area of tion technology that is available. This study determined that further research, study, and development by the industry and winter operations training of most airport employees is accom- the government. plished by airport supervisors.