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44 CHAPTER TEN PAST, CURRENT, AND FUTURE TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS For years, the method used to avoid runway and airfield inci- AIRPORT SURFACE DETECTION dents during low visibility and winter operating conditions EQUIPMENT MODEL 3 was based primarily on human communication, the alertness of operators and controllers, and written SOPs or regulations. Airport surface detection equipment (ASDE) is a ground- The advancement of technology has created potential to better surveillance radar that depicts aircraft and airport vehicles mitigate the effects of human and operational errors at airports, and equipment on the airport surface. ASDE-3 is a ground- especially during winter operations. mapping radar that provides air traffic controllers with a video display of all vehicles and obstacles on an airport's runways A number of public and private technologies have been and taxiways. It aids controllers in the orderly movement of proposed and studied over the years. The technologies follow aircraft and ground vehicles on the airport surface, especially one of two paths for preventing incursions: one is detection during periods of low visibility such as rain, fog, and night and the other is avoidance. Detection relies on technology to operations. For ASDE-3 to prevent incursions or conflicts on detect a possible incursion and provide an alert to ATC, while the ground, a controller must monitor the screen. avoidance technologies prompt an alert to an aircraft or vehi- cle operator to not enter a restricted area. AIRPORT MOVEMENT AREA SAFETY SYSTEM Runway safety technologies that have been considered, are In conjunction with ASDE-3, the installation of additional being studied, or are being used for purposes of enhancing safety logic software will sound an alarm to warn controllers safety at airports follow: of a potential collision or incursion. The software addition is called airport movement area safety system (AMASS). Airport surface detection equipment model 3 (ASDE-3), AMASS extends and enhances the capability of the ASDE-3 Airport movement area safety systems (AMASS), radar by providing automated alerts and warnings to potential Airport surface detection equipment-X (ASDE-X), runway incursions and other hazards, thereby assisting the Airport target identification system (ATIDS), controller's vigilance. The visual and aural prompts require Automated dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B), controllers to respond to situations that potentially compromise Runway status lights (RWSL), safety. Low cost surface surveillance (LCSS), Loop detection technology (LOT), Final approach runway occupancy signal, AIRPORT SURFACE DETECTION EQUIPMENT-X Driver-enhanced vision systems (DEVS), Motion sensing systems, and An enhanced version of airport surface detection equipment, Other technology. called "ASDE-X," is intended to address small- to medium- sized airports. It is a less-expensive ground radar and warning The unique operating conditions of winter can create a system than ASDE-3 radar and AMASS. ASDE-X integrates challenge for the implementation of any incursion technol- a combination of surface movement radar and transponder ogy. Although certain technology is being utilized or multi-lateration sensor antennas placed around an airport to implemented, it is not clear from the literature search the detect and show aircraft and vehicle positions on an ATC tower extent to which winter operational conditions were consid- display. The system detects and alerts controllers to potential ered or evaluated as part of the testing. Any consideration aircraft and vehicle collision situations through advanced of technology intended to help prevent incursions must conflict detection and alerting technology. An ASDE-X dis- take into consideration the effects of snow banks, blowing plays an identification tag next to every radar target depicted snow, or freezing precipitation, as well as operational con- on a ground controller's display. ditions of numerous vehicles on the movement areas mak- ing quick starts, stops, and turns, and working in groups or AIRPORT TARGET IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM singularly. Such conditions are clearly an area for further study and evaluation. Listed below are short summaries of An airport target identification system (ATIDS) provides con- the technology. trollers with aircraft and vehicle identification and position on