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45 the airport movement area and in selected ramp and gate mounted to each vehicle help track their location. The vehi- areas as a means to augment existing ASDE/AMASS sys- cles communicate over a radio or cellular digital packet data tems. It has become part of the Runway Incursion Reduction system to a base station where a computer monitors fleet Program. activity and processes captured data for post-analysis. Each may be clicked on to see precisely which vehicle is at which location, what it is doing, and how it is performing. All data LOW COST SURFACE SURVEILLANCE are recorded and can be played back on the computer. Low cost surface surveillance (LCSS) systems are vehicle- tracking systems that utilize global positioning system (GPS), GPS also allows for vehicles to be monitored through means microwave technology, or changes in the earth's magnetic of a web browser cartography program such as Google Earth field. They are beginning to make inroads into aviation oper- or Mapquest. The computer monitor can be located in the ations. Some are an extension of existing ground fleet vehicle operations office, the ATCT, or even the vehicles themselves. management systems while others are expansion of the GPS The monitored vehicles then appear as small traversing dots revolution (61, 62). on the screen. Other GPS tracking systems are passive in that a simple GPS receiver is displayed over an airport's geo- graphical information system layout of the airport (67). AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-BROADCAST LOOP TECHNOLOGY Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) is a cooperative surveillance system that uses satellite technology, Loop technology (LOT) is a common method for detecting vehicle and aircraft avionics, and a flexible ground infra- objects as they pass over a given position by creating an structure to more accurately and quickly transmit information inductive electrical charge in a wire or sensors embedded in between aircraft and air traffic control. "Automatic" means the pavement. LOT is used throughout the nation for roadway that the system is always on and requires no operator inter- vehicle traffic monitoring and control. LOT has the potential vention. "Dependent" means it depends on an accurate global to be used in a stand-alone mode or as a supplemental sensor navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal for position data. input to an ASDE radar surface surveillance system. It can "Surveillance" reflects its radar-like observational capabili- also be conveyed to the vehicle operator as an in-cabin warn- ties and services. Broadcast means the system continuously ing monitor (68). broadcasts aircraft position and other data to any aircraft, vehicle, or ground station equipped to receive ADS-B. With FINAL APPROACH RUNWAY ADS-B, aircraft and vehicles will be able to receive data about OCCUPANCY SIGNAL each other's whereabouts directly, rather than through ATC intercession. It will display in the cockpit or cabin the location Final approach runway occupancy signal is a pilot notifica- of aircraft and vehicles on and in the vicinity of an airport. tion system that provides warning to aircraft pilots on final approach when vehicles or other aircraft are actively on the RUNWAY STATUS LIGHTS runway through inductive loop sensors embedded in the runway and taxiway surfaces to track aircraft and vehicles The runway status lights (RWSL) system is a series of lights entering and exiting the monitored zones. When any moni- (hold position, runway and taxiway lead-on centerline, and tored zone on the runway is occupied by a stationary or slow- elevated runway guard lights) that inform controllers, pilots, moving target, such as a snow plow, a signal is provided to and vehicle operators whether or not a runway is clear (63, 64). pilots on approach to landing by flashing the precision Used in conjunction with ASDE-3 and ASDE-X, RWSL approach path indicator lights as a visual indication to pilots safety logic software assesses any possible conflicts with other on approach (69). The monitoring system can use LOT, multi- surface traffic. Red in-pavement runway entrance lights are lateration, or similar technology to detect the presence of illuminated if the runway is unsafe for entry or crossing, and equipment, vehicles, or aircraft. red in-pavement runway centerline hold lights are illuminated if the runway is unsafe for arrival or departure. The vehicle DRIVER-ENHANCED VISION SYSTEMS or aircraft operator then responds to the signal. DEVS can consist of night vision enhancement devices and GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM night vision imaging systems that can provide drivers with VEHICLE TRACKING some ability to see at night for enhanced operations (70, 71). Night vision goggles are a main component of night vision GPS satellite vehicle tracking systems, also known as auto- imaging systems. Interior and exterior cabin lighting, cabin matic vehicle locators (AVL), have been utilized in highway control layout, and vehicle windows are secondary compo- traffic management systems for several years. Several com- nents. Based on survey responses, night vision enhancement panies have adapted it to airports (65, 66). On-board processors devices and night vision imaging systems are not currently