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47 regardless of the number of passenger enplanements. To sup- risk or runway incursion. Chapter ten highlights the advance- port the call to action, the FAA has since issued Change 1 to ment of technology as potential means to mitigate the effects the Advisory Circular requiring the enhanced markings at all of human and operational errors at airports. The chapter pro- 14 CFR Part 139 airports (80). The use of surface-painted vides a synopsis of past technology that had been explored holding position signs is required for airports having multi- but not adopted, existing technology that is in use, and promis- ple runways, taxiway widths greater than 200 ft, or as deter- ing future technology that can address several of the factors mined by other operational need. identified in this report. The technology follows one of two paths for preventing incursions: technology designed for detec- tion and technology designed for avoidance. Although various SUMMARY technologies are being considered, one obstacle to overcome is the feasibility of usage during winter operations, which The previous chapters three through nine expounded on the fac- places a unique operating condition on each technology. This tors that contributed to the possibility of increased collision is an area for further research and study.