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57 APPENDIX A Survey Instrument AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM S04-02 Preventing Vehicle/Aircraft Incidents During Winter Operations NAME: _________________ DATE: _________________ AIRPORT: _________________ PHONE OR EMAIL: _________________ 1. Snow removal and ice control operations on an airport represent a time when there is an increased risk for a collision between an aircraft and vehicles involved in winter operations. Q1A: List the factors that you have experienced or think increase the risk of collision: Q1B: Are you aware of the number of runway incursions nationally related to snow removal operations within the last year July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007? Yes _____ No _____ How many do you think? _____ Q1C: Does your airport have a _____ full-time ATCT; _____ part-time ATCT; _____ no ATCT _____ a non-precision or GPS instrument approach to a runway Q1D: Name and contact number for ATC manager: __________________________ 2. While sometimes it is possible to close a runway while winter operations are conducted on it, at other times it is necessary to conduct winter operations on the runway between aircraft arrivals and/or departures. Q2A: How do you avoid or prevent the incursion of vehicles on active and/or crosswind runways, and assure all winter oper- ation vehicles are clear of a runway or a particular area when opening to air traffic? Q2B: To whom do you communicate with about the opening and closing of runways/taxiways or other operational require- ments during winter operations? Q2C: How (what means or procedures) do you communicate with others about the opening and closings of runways? 3. Winter operations often occur over several consecutive hours that can result in driver fatigue. Q3A: List the factors that you have experienced or think contribute to driver fatigue or impairment: Q3B: What have you done or what methods, techniques, or procedures have you and your personnel used or found to be help- ful in reducing the effect of fatigue from long snow removal operations during day and/or night operations? Q3C: Can you give an example of when the effects of fatigue at your airport or another airport have affected safe winter operations? 4. There is often a sense of urgency and time pressure during the winter operations to restore the airport to normal as quickly as possible. Q4A: List the factors or situations that you have experienced or think contribute to the sense of urgency to complete snow removal operations. Q4B: From your perspective, how can the internal and external pressures associated with resolving or completing winter snow removal operations be reduced or minimized? Q4C: Can you give an example of when the effects of time pressure or urgency at your airport resulted in an unsafe operation during snow removal or low visibility conditions?

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58 5. Winter operations are often conducted during periods of reduced visibility due to weather and/or darkness. Visual cues that drivers normally use to navigate on airport runways and taxiways may be obscured or take on a different appearance. Q5A: What are problems that you or your personnel have experienced while engaged in snow plowing, brooming, deicing, fog or other winter operation that have caused reduced visibility, seeing where you are, or difficulty in traversing the runways, taxiways, and ramps? Q5B: How did you solve the problems in Q5A? Please describe what works: practices, procedures, equipment, etc. Q5C: Does your airport use a commercial or other type of system to track the location of winter operation vehicles or provide an alert that a vehicle is entering a prohibited area (GPS, ASDE-X, manual chart, FLIR, other)? Please describe. Q5D: What airfield equipment, fixture, or vehicle design item could be or has been valuable to you in enhancing visibility dur- ing winter operations (type of lights, wipers, deflectors, blades, reflectors, flags, FLIR, DEVs, etc.)? Q5E: Do you contract out any of the snow removal operations at your airport? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, what area of the airport are they assigned to operate on? How do you prevent contract personnel who are assigned to winter operation duties in non-movement areas (apron/ramp) from entering movement areas (runways/taxiways)? 6. Communication breakdowns between vehicle operators, air traffic controllers, and/or pilots can result in a vehicle being on the runway when an aircraft is arriving or departing. Q6A: Has this ever occurred at your airport? _____ Yes _____ No If yes, can you briefly describe the situation(s)? Q6B: Have you or your personnel experienced an unsafe communication breakdown with ATCT, FSS, Approach, TRACON, or Unicom/CTAF? _____ Yes _____ No If yes, can you briefly describe the situation(s)? Q6C: How do you enhance communication or prevent miscommunication between: a) Winter operation vehicles and air traffic control (both ATCT and approach control)? b) Winter operation vehicles and aircraft (especially at airports without an ATCT)? Q6D: Does your airport have any prohibitions on the use of cell phones or listening to AM/FM radios, CDs, etc., while engaged in snow and ice removal operations? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, please provide a copy of the policy or explain the prohibition. If no, have there been any problems or issues associated with their use? Q6E: What type of snow removal operations training is conducted at your airport? Q6F: Who conducts snow removal training at your airport and what does it consist of? 7. One purpose of this study is to identify airports that have effective winter operations and communication protocols. Can you recommend and identify any other airports that you think have good operations or procedures? 8. Has your airport ever won the Balchen/Post award for snow removal operations? _____ Yes _____ No When? _________ Thank you!! Return with this survey(s) a copy of your snow plan and/or procedures and any ATCT LOA's to: Stephen Quilty, A.A.E. 620 Kirkshire Drive, Perrysburg, OH 43551-2934 Email: squilty@bgsu.edu