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8 Runway 25L, Ground Control instructed Loader 77 to e-mail correspondence, and a review of published studies hold short of Runway 25L at all times and to advise if and general literature. they needed to get into the clear zone for 25L. Loader 77 acknowledged this and read back the hold short The first step in the development of this report was to con- instructions for 25L. Subsequently, Ground Control duct a literature review. The following sources of information observed Loader 77 turning around on the very end of were investigated: Runway 31, which is inside the RSA. Ground Control instructed Loader 77 to exit the RSA due to traffic on Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) final for 25L. Loader 77 exited the RSA when arrival database, reached 2 mile final. No loss of separation reported. AAAE and affiliated chapters, F. 2/12/07 V/PD Large-Hub Airport. A snow plow vehicle FAA national and regional offices, was sanding a perimeter road west of Runway 22L. Personnel from several airports in the United States, When making a 180-degree turnaround, the vehicle Internet searches using various search engines, and proceeded to cross the hold short line for Runway 22L. Snow equipment organizations. Local Control observed the snow plow and issued a go around to a Northwest Airlink CRJ2 that was on 1-mi Additional material suggested by TRB project committee final for Runway 22L. No loss of separation reported. also was reviewed. The bibliographies from the researched G. 2/17/07 V/PD Small-Hub Airport. Snow removal in literature were reviewed for any further sources that could be progress for Runway 8 with 3 vehicles authorized to included in the analysis. Also considered during the review operate on the runway. Local Control then observed a were more than 50 snow removal plans submitted to the FAA fourth vehicle, Unit 26, on the runway at the west end by various airports. without clearance. H. 2/17/07 V/PD Non-Hub Airport. Snow removal was in The second step in the development of this synthesis study progress for Runway 10. Airport 12 was instructed to was to conduct a survey of airports to seek qualitative infor- exit Runway 10 and report off. Approximately 2 min mation about their operations and experiences. The nature of later Airport 12 reported all vehicles clear of Runway 10. the investigation into practices and procedures precluded the One vehicle at C2 intersection for Runway 10 moved use of a closed-end questionnaire. The information being onto the runway without authorization. A Continental sought required a description of the activities being conducted Express E145 at outer marker and beyond 1 mi for Run- at an airport. For this reason, an open-ended questionnaire way 10 was issued missed approach instructions to was deemed more appropriate for collecting data on how the avoid loss of separation. Airport 12 was notified and had airports conduct their snow removal operations. the vehicle clear the runway. I. 4/5/07 V/PD Small-Hub Airport. Sweeper 11, an air- The questionnaire used for the survey (Appendix A) was port vehicle, requested to proceed onto Taxiway A pre-tested at a training workshop at the 41st International between the hold line for Runway 03 and the runway. Aviation Snow Symposium, held annually by the Northeast Ground Control instructed Sweeper 11 to cross hold Chapter of the AAAE (NEC/AAAE). Attendees of the work- line for Runway 03 but hold short of the runway. shop were primarily individuals involved in snow removal Sweeper 11 read back the instructions then proceeded operations from across the country. to cross Runway 03. No conflicts reported. J. 4/17/07 V/PD Small-Hub Airport. A vehicle (basket lift) As a result of the pre-test and suggestions from panel com- entered Runway 36R at Taxiway E2 without autho- mittee members, the questionnaire was refined and dissemi- rization. No conflicts reported. The driver stated he nated to airports both electronically and by mail. Targeted was taking a shortcut and did not see the runway signs. specifically was a cross section of airports that fell into the following categories: large-hub, medium-hub, small-hub, non- Attempting to quantify the root causes of the above inci- hub, and general aviation. Thirty-six responses to the ques- dents is difficult. The descriptions do not provide the level of tionnaire were received. The categories into which the airports detail that allow for in-depth analysis. There are multiple fac- fell were: large-hub (6), medium-hub (4), small-hub (8), non- tors involved and they occur at different categories of air- hub and commercial service (10), and general aviation (8). ports and by different vehicles. This report seeks to better Several of the airports had cargo and/or military operations identify some of the factors involved. conducted on their airport. Further categorizing the responses, 20 were from airports with full-time ATCTs, 12 from part- time ATCTs, and 4 from airports without ATCTs. A list of air- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ports from which responses were collected is provided in Appendix B. A qualitative approach was used in the accumulation of information for this report. The data were gathered by means Further targeted for the survey were airports that had of a questionnaire, telephone interviews (where necessary), received the Balchen/Post award from previous NEC/AAAE