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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 629 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Ruggedness Testing of the Dynamic Modulus and Flow Number Tests with the Simple Performance Tester

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS David Kelly, Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Thomas J. Madison, Jr., Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2008.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 629 Ruggedness Testing of the Dynamic Modulus and Flow Number Tests with the Simple Performance Tester Ramon Bonaquist ADVANCED ASPHALT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC Sterling, VA Subject Areas Materials and Construction Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 629 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 9-29 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN: 978-0-309-11758-6 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2008909954 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2008 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 629 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Edward T. Harrigan, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications NCHRP PROJECT 09-29 PANEL Field of Materials and Construction--Area of Bituminous Materials Larry L. Michael, Hagerstown, MD (Chair) Ronald Cominsky, Pennsylvania Asphalt Pavement Association, Harrisburg, PA Gary A. Frederick, New York State DOT, Albany, NY Cindy LaFleur, Callanan Industries, Inc., Albany, NY Dean A. Maurer, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg, PA Murari M. Pradhan, Arizona DOT, Phoenix, AZ John "Jack" Weigel, Jr., Payne & Dolan, Inc., Waukesha, WI Thomas Harman, FHWA Liaison Leslie Ann McCarthy, FHWA Liaison Audrey Copeland, Other Liaison John D'Angelo, Other Liaison Frederick Hejl, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 9-29 by Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC. The Simple Performance Test Systems evaluated in this report were developed by Industrial Process Controls, Ltd; Interlaken Technology Corporation; and Medical Device Testing Sys- tems. The Federal Highway Administration Mobile Asphalt Laboratory assisted with the ruggedness tests that are the subject of this report. Ramon Bonaquist, Chief Operating Officer for Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC, served as Prin- cipal Investigator for the project and authored this report. Donald W. Christensen, Senior Engineer for Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC and Donald Jack, Laboratory Manager for Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC assisted with the equipment refinements and equipment evaluation reported in this document.

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FOREWORD By Edward T. Harrigan Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCHRP Project 9-29, "Simple Performance Tester for Superpave Mix Design," is a multi- phase effort to develop a practical, economical simple performance tester (SPT) for use in routine hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mix design and in the characterization of HMA materials for pavement structural design with the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). In the phase of the project reported here, ruggedness testing was conducted with the SPT for the dynamic modulus and flow number tests developed in NCHRP Project 9-19 as simple performance tests for permanent deformation. Thus, the report will be of par- ticular interest to materials and pavement structural design engineers in state highway agencies, as well as to materials suppliers. The present HMA volumetric mix design method used by the majority of state highway agencies was developed in the asphalt component of the Strategic Highway Research Pro- gram (19871993). This method--standardized as AASHTO M 323 and R 35--does not include a simple, mechanical "proof" test analogous to the Marshall stability and flow tests or the Hveem stabilometer method. Though the utility and soundness of the HMA mix design method are evident by its almost ubiquitous, present-day use, mix designers from the beginning have asked for com- plementary simple performance tests to quickly and easily proof-test candidate mix designs. Work sponsored by FHWA and then NCHRP in the period 19962006 (and reported in NCHRP Reports 465, 547, and 580) recommended three test and parameter combinations as simple performance tests for permanent deformation: (1) the dynamic modulus, E*, determined with the triaxial dynamic modulus test; (2) the flow number, Fn, determined with the triaxial repeated load test; and (3) the flow time, FT, determined with the triaxial static creep test. The dynamic modulus, E*, also was chosen as the simple performance test for fatigue cracking as well as the chief HMA materials characterization test for HMA pave- ment design with the MEPDG. Under NCHRP Project 9-29, "Simple Performance Tester for Superpave Mix Design," Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC was assigned the task of designing, procuring, and evaluating an SPT for (1) proof-testing for permanent deformation and fatigue cracking in HMA mix design and (2) materials characterization for pavement structural design with the MEPDG. In the portion (Phase V) of NCHRP Project 9-29 reported here, the research team con- ducted ruggedness testing for the dynamic modulus and flow number tests in the SPT. A formal ruggedness experiment was designed, conducted, and analyzed in accordance with ASTM E1169, Standard Guide for Conducting Ruggedness Tests. A second, equipment effects experiment investigated whether there are significant differences in SPT data collected with

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equipment from various manufacturers. Both experiments were performed separately for the dynamic modulus and flow number tests. Based on the findings from the ruggedness and equipment effects experiments, modifications to the SPT equipment specification and test procedures were made to improve the quality of the test data and reduce variability. This report presents the full text of the contractor's final report for Phase V and six appen- dices, which present (1) dynamic modulus ruggedness data (Appendix A); (2) flow num- ber ruggedness data (Appendix B); (3) dynamic modulus equipment effects data (Appen- dix C); (4) flow number equipment effects data (Appendix D); (5) the final version of the SPT equipment specifications (Appendix E); and (6) SPT test methods (Appendix F). Earlier work completed in Phases I through IV is presented in NCHRP Reports 513, 530, and 614.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Approach 2 1.1 Problem and Purpose 2 1.2 Scope 3 1.3 Ruggedness Experiments 3 1.3.1 Background 4 1.3.2 Ruggedness Testing Plan for Dynamic Modulus 7 1.3.3 Ruggedness Testing Plan for the Flow Number Tests 10 1.4 Equipment Effects Experiment 12 Chapter 2 Results and Analysis of Ruggedness Experiments 12 2.1 Analysis Approach 12 2.2 Dynamic Modulus Test 13 2.2.1 Factors Affecting Dynamic Modulus and Phase Angle 15 2.2.2 Factors Affecting Data Quality Indicators 19 2.2.3 Summary 20 2.3 Flow Number Test 20 2.3.1 Factors Affecting Flow Number 22 2.3.2 Factors Affecting Permanent Strain 24 2.3.3 Summary 27 Chapter 3 Results and Analysis of Equipment Effects Experiment 27 3.1 Introduction 27 3.2 Dynamic Modulus 27 3.2.1 Equipment Modifications 28 3.2.2 Statistical Analysis 32 3.3 Flow Number 33 3.3.1 Statistical Analysis 35 3.4 Repeatability 36 3.5 Summary 37 Chapter 4 Conclusions 37 4.1 SPT Equipment Specification Modifications 37 4.2 SPT Test Methods Modifications 38 4.3 Manufacturer Modifications 39 References

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A1 Appendix A Dynamic Modulus Ruggedness Data B1 Appendix B Flow Number Ruggedness Data C1 Appendix C Dynamic Modulus Equipment Effects Data D1 Appendix D Flow Number Equipment Effects Data E1 Appendix E Final Version of the SPT Equipment Specifications F1 Appendix F SPT Test Methods