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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 600B COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems Collection B: Chapters 6, 22 (Tutorial 3), 23 (Updated)

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS David Kelly, Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Thomas J. Madison, Jr., Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of September 2008.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 600B Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems Collection B: Chapters 6, 22 (Tutorial 3), 23 (Updated) John L. Campbell Christian M. Richard BATTELLE Seattle, WA Jerry Graham MIDWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Kansas City, MO Subject Areas Safety and Human Performance Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 600B RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 17-31 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-11751-7 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2008900429 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2008 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 600B Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Charles W. Niessner, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor Natalie Barnes, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 17-31 PANEL Field of Traffic--Area of Safety Thomas Hicks, Maryland State Highway Administration, Hanover, MD (Chair) Larry Christianson, Deja Program Development, McMinnville, OR Maurice R. Masliah, iTRANS Consulting, Inc., Richmond Hill, ON Joseph V. Mondillo, New York State DOT, Albany, NY David K. Olson, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Wendel T. Ruff, ABMB Engineers, Inc., Jackson, MS Leo Tasca, Ontario Ministry of Transportation, Downsview, ON Samuel C. Tignor, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, McLean, VA Thomas Granda, FHWA Liaison Richard Pain, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Charles W. Niessner Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report contains guidelines that provide human factors principles and findings for consideration by highway designers and traffic engineers. The guidelines allow the non- expert in human factors to more effectively consider the roadway user's capabilities and limitations in the design and operation of highway facilities. The TRB, AASHTO, and the FHWA have been working since 2001 on two projects that together will help to promote greater safety for all road users. These two projects are the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) and the Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems (HFG). These projects have been supported by funding from NCHRP and the FHWA. The TRB supports the Highway Safety Manual through the HSM Task Force and the Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems through the Joint Subcommittee for the Development of a Human Factors Guideline for Road Systems. The HSM and HFG promote improved safety for highway users and complement each other. They should be used together. Neither document is a substitute for national or state standards such as AASHTO's A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets or the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. The HSM provides highway engineers with a synthesis of validated highway research and proven procedures for integrating safety into both new and improvement projects. It also provides practitioners with enhanced analytic tools for predicting and measuring the suc- cess of implemented safety countermeasures. After using the HSM to develop possible design alternatives to improve safety on an in- service or planned intersection or section of roadway, the practitioner may then use the HFG to enhance the possible solutions. Successful highway safety depends on the consider- ation and integration of three fundamental components--the roadway, the vehicle, and the roadway user. Unfortunately, the information needs, limitations, and capabilities of road- way users are lacking in many traditional resources used by practitioners. The easy-to-use guidelines in the HFG provide the highway designer and traffic engineer with objective, defensible human factors principles and information that can be used to support and jus- tify design decisions. The HFG will allow the non-expert in human factors to recognize the needs and limitations of the road user in a more effective manner and design roads that are safer for all. When reviewing either existing or planned roads or intersections, highway designers and traffic engineers are strongly encouraged to use both the HFG and the HSM to identify and develop the safest solutions for road users.

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NOTES ON PUBLICATION OF HUMAN FACTORS GUIDELINES FOR ROAD SYSTEMS Chapter 6, Tutorial 3 of Chapter 22, and an updated Chapter 23 are contained herein. Chapters 1 through 5, 10, 11, 13, 22 (Tutorials 1 and 2), 23, and 26 were published previ- ously as Collection A. Additional chapters will be developed under NCHRP Project 17-41 according to the priorities established by the project panel and are expected in late 2010. One additional project will most likely be needed to complete the guidelines. The problem statement for this final contract will be submitted to the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research for consideration at its March 2009 meeting. Chapter 3 (Finding Information Like a Road User) and Chapter 4 (Integrating Road User, Highway Design, and Traffic Engineering Needs) are authored by Samuel Tignor, Thomas Hicks, and Joseph Mondillo. Chapter 5 (Sight Distance Guidelines) and Tutorials 1 and 2 in Chapter 22 (Tutorials) present a revision of materials originally published as: Lerner, N., Llaneras, R., Smiley, A., and Hanscom, F. (2004). NCHRP Web-Only Document 70: Comprehensive Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Chapter locations and publication dates. Published Chapter in Report Publication Date 1. Why Have Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems? 600A March 2008 2. How to Use this Document 600A March 2008 3. Finding Information Like a Road User 600A March 2008 4. Integrating Road User, Highway Design, and Traffic 600A March 2008 Engineering Needs 5. Sight Distance Guidelines 600A March 2008 6. Curves (Horizontal Alignment) 600B December 2008 7. Grades (Vertical Alignment) Forthcoming 8. Tangent Sections and Roadside (Cross Section) Forthcoming 9. Transition Zones Between Varying Road Designs Forthcoming 10. Non-Signalized Intersections 600A March 2008 11. Signalized Intersections 600A March 2008 12. Interchanges Forthcoming 13. Construction and Work Zones 600A March 2008 14. Rail-Highway Grade Crossings Forthcoming 15. Special Considerations for Urban Environments Forthcoming 16. Special Considerations for Rural Environments Forthcoming 17. Speed Perception, Speed Choice, and Speed Control Forthcoming 18. Signing Forthcoming 19. Variable Message Signs Forthcoming 20. Markings Forthcoming 21. Lighting Forthcoming March, December 22. Tutorials 600A,B 2008 23. References 600B December 2008 24. Glossary Forthcoming 25. Index Forthcoming 26. Abbreviations 600A March 2008 27. Equations Forthcoming All published chapters are available as individual PDF files and as a consolidated PDF file on the TRB website

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CONTENTS* PA RT I Introduction 1-1 Chapter 1 Why Have Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems? 1-1 1.1 Purpose of Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems 1-1 1.2 Overview of the HFG 2-1 Chapter 2 How to Use this Document 2-1 2.1 Organization of the HFG 2-1 2.2 Scope and Limitations of the HFG 2-2 2.3 The Two-Page Format 2-4 2.4 Tutorials 2-5 2.5 Other Features PA RT I I Bringing Road User Capabilities into Highway Design and Traffic Engineering Practice 3-1 Chapter 3 Finding Information Like a Road User 3-1 3.1 Introduction 3-1 3.2 Road User as a Component of the Highway System 3-2 3.3 Example Problems of Highway Designers and Traffic Engineers 3-4 3.4 How Road Users Seek Information 3-5 3.5 Examples of User-Scanned Road Environments 3-6 3.6 How Highway Designers and Traffic Engineers Work Together for Road Users 4-1 Chapter 4 Integrating Road User, Highway Design, and Traffic Engineering Needs 4-1 4.1 Introduction 4-1 4.2 Iterative Review Steps to Achieve Good Human Factor Applications 4-4 4.3 Use of Parts III and IV for Specifying Designs 4-6 4.4 Video and Animation Illustrations * See "Notes on Publication of Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems" on facing page.

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P A R T I I I Human Factors Guidance for Roadway Location Elements 5-1 Chapter 5 Sight Distance Guidelines 5-2 Key Components of Sight Distance 5-4 Determining Stopping Sight Distance 5-6 Determining Intersection Sight Distance 5-8 Determining When to Use Decision Sight Distance 5-10 Determining Passing Sight Distance 5-12 Influence of Speed on Sight Distance 5-14 Key References for Sight Distance Information 5-16 Where to Find Sight Distance Information for Specific Roadway Features 5-18 Where to Find Sight Distance Information for Intersections 6-1 Chapter 6 Curves (Horizontal Alignment) 6-2 Task Analysis of Curve Driving 6-4 The Influence of Perceptual Factors on Curve Driving 6-6 Speed Selection on Horizontal Curves 6-8 Countermeasures for Improving Steering and Vehicle Control Through Curves 6-10 Countermeasures to Improve Pavement Delineation 6-12 Signs on Horizontal Curves 7-1 Chapter 7 Grades (Vertical Alignment) [Forthcoming] 8-1 Chapter 8 Tangent Sections and Roadside (Cross Section) [Forthcoming] 9-1 Chapter 9 Transition Zones Between Varying Road Designs [Forthcoming] 10-1 Chapter 10 Non-Signalized Intersections 10-2 Acceptable Gap Distance 10-4 Factors Affecting Acceptable Gap 10-6 Sight Distance at Left-Skewed Intersections 10-8 Sight Distance at Right-Skewed Intersections 10-10 Countermeasures for Improving Accessibility for Vision-Impaired Pedestrians at Roundabouts 11-1 Chapter 11 Signalized Intersections 11-2 Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red Light Running 11-4 Restricting Right Turns on Red to Address Pedestrian Safety 11-6 Heuristics for Selecting the Yellow Timing Interval 11-8 Countermeasures for Improving Accessibility for Vision-Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections 12-1 Chapter 12 Interchanges [Forthcoming]

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13-1 Chapter 13 Construction and Work Zones 13-2 Procedures to Ensure Proper Arrow Panel Visibility 13-4 Caution Mode Configuration for Arrow Panels 13-6 Changeable Message Signs 13-8 Sign Legibility 13-10 Determining Work Zone Speed Limits 14-1 Chapter 14 Rail-Highway Grade Crossings [Forthcoming] 15-1 Chapter 15 Special Considerations for Urban Environments [Forthcoming] 16-1 Chapter 16 Special Considerations for Rural Environments [Forthcoming] 17-1 Chapter 17 Speed Perception, Speed Choice, and Speed Control [Forthcoming] P A R T I V Human Factors Guidance for Traffic Engineering Elements 18-1 Chapter 18 Signing [Forthcoming] 19-1 Chapter 19 Variable Message Signs [Forthcoming] 20-1 Chapter 20 Markings [Forthcoming] 21-1 Chapter 21 Lighting [Forthcoming] P A R T V Additional Information 22-1 Chapter 22 Tutorials 22-2 Tutorial 1: Real-World Driver Behavior Versus Design Models 22-9 Tutorial 2: Diagnosing Sight Distance Problems and Other Design Deficiencies 22-35 Tutorial 3: Detailed Task Analysis of Curve Driving 23-1 Chapter 23 References 24-1 Chapter 24 Glossary [Forthcoming]

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25-1 Chapter 25 Index [Forthcoming] 26-1 Chapter 26 Abbreviations 27-1 Chapter 27 Equations [Forthcoming]