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SECTION VII Key References Allen, M., and Weiss, H. (1998). Using Linked Data To Evaluate Collisions with Fixed Objects in Pennsylvania. Report No. DOT HS 808 800. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, October 1998. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (2002). Roadside Design Guide, 3rd Edition. American Honda Motor Company: http://powersports.honda.com/index.asp?bhcp=1. American Motorcyclist Association: http://ama-cycle.org/. Baer, J., Baldi, S., and Cook, A. (2005b). Promising Practices in Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing. Report No. DOT HS 809 922. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/ MotorcycleRider/index.html. Baer, J., Cook, A. L., and Baldi, S. (2005a). Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing: A Review of Programs and Practices. Report No. DOT HS 809 852. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/ McycleRiderWeb/pages/index.htm. Becker, L. R., McKnight, A. S., Nelkin, V. S., and Piper, D. L. (2003). Drinking, Riding, and Prevention: A Focus Group Study. Report No: DOT HS 809 490. Sponsored by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Calverton, MD: Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Bigelow, W. (2001). Traumatic Brain Injury Associated with Motorcycle Crashes in Wisconsin, 19911997. Orlando, FL: Paper Presented at the International Motorcycle Safety Conference. Billheimer, J. W. (1998). Evaluation of the California Motorcyclist Safety Program. In Transportation Research Record 1640. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, pp. 100109. Bowman, B. L. and Rounds, D. A. (1988). Restraint System Usage in the Traffic Population: 1987 Annual Report. Report No. DOT HS 807 342. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Bowman, B. L., and Rounds, D. A. (1989). Restraint System Usage in the Traffic Population: 1988 Annual Report. Report No. DOT HS 807 447. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Bryden, J. E., and Fortuniewicz, J. S. (1986). Traffic Barrier Performance Related to Vehicle Size and Type. In Transportation Research Record 1065. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, pp. 6978. Cairns, H., and Holburn, H. (1943). Head Injuries in Motorcyclists. British Medical Journal 1:591598. VII-1

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES Carr, W. P., Brandt, D. B., and Swanson, K. (1981). Injury patterns and helmet effectiveness among hospitalized motorcyclists. Minnesota Medicine 64:521527. Connecticut Department of Transportation, Motorcycle Safety Program: http://www.ride4ever.org/. Creaser, J. I., Ward, N. J., Rakauskas, M. E., Boer, E., Shankwitz, C., and Nardi, F. (2007). "Effects of Alcohol on Motorcycle Riding Skills." National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/portal/nhtsa_static_file_downloader.jsp?file=/ staticfiles/DOT/NHTSA/Traffic%20Injury%20Control/Articles/Associated%20Files/ HS810877.pdf. Datta, T. K., and Guzek, P. (1990). Restraint System Use in 19 U.S. Cities: 1989 Annual Report. Report No. DOT HS 807 595. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Datta, T. K., and Guzek, P. (1991). Restraint System Use in 19 U.S. Cities: 1990 Annual Report. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Datta, T. K., and Guzek, P. (1992). Restraint System Use in 19 U.S. Cities: 1991 Annual Report. Report No. DOT HS 808 148. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. De Rome, L., Stanford, G., and Wood, B. (2002). Positioned MCC Survey of Motorcyclists. Australia: Motorcycle Council of NSW, Inc. Deutermann, W. (2004). Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Revisited. Report No. DOT HS 809 715. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Domhan, M. (1987). Guardrails and Passive Safety for Motorcyclists. Vehicle Highway Infrastructure: Safety Compatibility. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, pp. 205208. Dorris, A. L., and Purswell, J. L. (1978). Impact of Motorcycle Helmet Usage in Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma. Report No. DOT HS 803 681. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (19942007). Web-Based Encyclopedia. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Available at: http://www-fars.nhtsa.dot.gov/ Main/index.aspx. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (2003). Traffic Safety Facts. Report No. DOT HS 809 775 and DOT HS 809 764. Washington, DC: National Center for Statistics and Analysis, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (2004). National Center for Statistics and Analysis, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Nashville, TN: Presentation at the 30th International Traffic Records Forum, July 26, 2004. (May be found in Appendix AA.) Federal Highway Administration (1997). User's Guide for the Public Use Data Files: 1995 Nationwide Personal Travel Survey. Publication No. FHWA-PL-98-002. VII-2

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES Finison, K. (2001). Using CODES Linked Data to Evaluate Motorcycle Crashes in Maine. Orlando, FL: Paper presented at the International Motorcycle Safety Conference. Finison, K., and DuBrow, R. (1999). Analysis of 1996 Maine Crashes Involving Vehicles that Ran Off the Road. Report No. DOT HS 808 889. Washington, DC: Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, April 1999. Fleischer, G. A. (1973). A study of the effectiveness of a radio/TV campaign on safety belt use. Journal of Safety Research, 5(1). Fleming, H. S., and Becker, E. R. (1992). The impact of the Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and head-related fatalities, severe injuries, and overall injuries. Medical Care 30:832845. Foldvary. L. A., and Lane, J. C. (1964). The effect of compulsory safety helmets on motorcycle accident fatalities. Australian Road Research 2(1):714. Glassbrenner, D. (2005a). Motorcycle helmet use in 2004--overall results. Traffic Safety Facts: Research Note. Report No. DOT HS 810 867. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Glassbrenner, D. (2005b). Motorcycle helmet use in 2005--overall results. Traffic Safety Facts: Research Note. Report No. DOT HS 809 937. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Glassbrenner, D., and Ye, J. (2006). Motorcycle helmet use in 2006--overall results. Traffic Safety Facts: Research Note. Report No. DOT HS 810 678. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Gordon, S., and Prince, J. (1975). Field of View With and Without Motorcycle Helmets. Report No. DOT HS 801 758. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Goryl, M. E. (1986). Restraint System Usage in the Traffic Population: 1985 Annual Report. Report No. DOT HS 806 978. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Goryl, M. E., and Bowman, B. L. (1987). Restraint System Usage in the Traffic Population: 1986 Annual Report. Report No. DOT HS 807 080. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Goryl, M. E., and Cynecki, M. J. (1985). Restraint System Usage in the Traffic Population. Report No. DOT HS 806 714. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Governor's Highway Safety Association (2007). Countermeasures That Work. Available at: http://www.ghsa.org/html/publications/pdf/CountermeasuresThatWork_2009.pdf. Harley-Davidson Motor Company: www.harley-davidson.com. Harwood, D. W., Council, F. M., Hauer, E., Hughes, W. E., and Vogt, A. (2000). Prediction of the Expected Safety Performance of Rural Two-Lane Highways. Report No. FHWA-RD-99-207. Federal Highway Administration, December 2000. VII-3

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES Harwood, D. W., Kohlman Rabbani, E. R., Richard, K. R., McGee, H. W., and Gittings, G. L. (2003). NCHRP Report 486: Systemwide Impact of Safety and Traffic Operations Design Decisions for 3R Projects. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Haworth, N. (1999). Road Factors in Motorcycle Crashes. Monash University Accident Research Centre. Presentation to the Victorian Motorcycle Advisory Council Workshop on Motorcycling and the Road Environment held at VicRoads, June 1999. Hedlund, J. H. (2005). Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for State Highway Safety Offices. Prepared for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, by the Governors Highway Safety Association. http://www.ghsa.org/html/publications/pdf/GHSA_Countermeasures.pdf. Heilman, D. R., Weisbuch, J. B., Blair, R. W., and Graf, L. L. (1982). Motorcycle-related trauma and helmet usage in North Dakota. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 11(12):659654. Henderson, R. L. (1975). Effect of Safety Helmets on Auditory Capability. Report No. DOT HS 801 758. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Hotz, G. A., Cohn, S. M., Popkin, C., Ekeh, P., Duncan, R., Johnson, E. W., Pernas, F., and Selem, J. (2003). The impact of a repealed motorcycle helmet law in Miami-Dade County. The Journal of Trauma, 52(3):131150. Huang, W. J. (1999). Development of the Intelligent Motorcycle Transportation Systems in Urban Areas. Washington, DC: ITS America 9th Annual Meeting. Hurt, H. H., Ouellet, J. V., and Thom, D. R. (1981). Motorcycle Accident Cause Factors and Identification of Countermeasures, Vol. I: Technical Report, Vol. II: Appendices and Supplemental Data, NTIS PB-206 443, PB-206 450. Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California. Hurt, H. H., Thom, D. R. and Smith, T. A. (1996). Updating the twenty-year-old DOT helmet standard (FMVSS 218). Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, 40th Annual Proceedings. Johnson, S. W., and Walker, J. (1996). The Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES). Report No. DOT HS 808 338. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Kanny, D., Schieber, R. A., Jones, B. H., Ryan, G. W., and Sorensen, B. J. (2003). Epidemiology of Mass Casualties during Bike Week 2000, Daytona Beach, Florida. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 41(6): 792797. Karlson, T., Bigelow, W., and Beutel, P. (1998). Serious Lower Extremity Injuries from Motor Vehicle Crashes, Wisconsin 19911994. Report No. DOT HS 808 791. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, September 1998. Kelley, P., Sanson, T., Strange, G., and Orsay, E. (1989). A Prospective Study of the Impact of Helmet Usage on Motorcycle Trauma. Chicago: University of Illinois Affiliated Hospitals. VII-4

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES Kim, K. (2001). Finding Fault in Motorcycle Crashes in Hawaii: Environmental, Temporal, Spatial and Human Factors. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1779. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, pp. 182188. Krane, S. W., and Winterfield, L. A. (1980). Impact of Motorcycle Helmet Usage in Colorado: A Three Year Study. Denver: Colorado Division of Highway Safety. Kraus, J. F., Peek, C., McArthur, D. L., and Williams, A. F. (1994). The effect of the 1992 California motorcycle helmet usage law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. Journal of the American Medical Association 272:15061511. Kraus, J. F., Peek, C., and Williams, A. (1995a). Compliance with the 1992 California motorcycle helmet use law. American Journal of Public Health 85:9699. Kraus, J. F., Peek, C., Shen, H., and Williams, A. (1995b). Motorcycle crashes: injuries, rider, crash and vehicle characteristics associated with helmet use. Journal of Traffic Medicine 23:2935. Kraus, J. F., Riggins, R. S., and Franti, C. E. (1974). Some Factors Associated with Severity of Injuries in Motorcycle Collisions. Publication HS-015190. Washington, DC: Third International Congress on Automotive Safety Proceedings, pp. 5-1525. Kraus, J. F., Zador, P., Arzemanian, S., and Anderson, C. (1988). "Motorcycle Design and Crash Injuries in California." Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 64:788803. Kweon, Y. J., and Kockelman, K. M. (2002). Overall injury risk to different drivers: combining exposure, frequency, and severity models. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board 81st Annual Meeting. Lawrence, B. A., Max, W., and Miller, T. R. (2003). Costs of Injuries Resulting from Motorcycle Crashes: A Literature Review. Report No. DOT HS 809 242. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Lewin, W., and Kennedy, W. F. C. (1956). Motorcyclists, Crash Helmets, and Head Injuries. British Medical Journal, June 2, 1956, pp. 125359. Lummis, M. L. and Dugger, C. (1980). Impact of the Repeal of the Kansas Motorcycle Helmet Law: 197578. University of Kansas, College of Health Sciences. Report No. DOT HS 804 018. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Lund, A. K., Williams, A. F., and Womack, K. N. (1991). Motorcycle helmet use in Texas. Public Health Reports 106:576578. Maher, S. M. (2000). Intelligent Transportation Systems and Motorcycle Safety: A Review of Current Trends in the Development and Deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems and the Identification of Opportunities to Enhance Motorcycle Safety. Proceedings of the 2000 International Motorcycle Conference, iFZ. Maryland Motorcycle Safety Task Force (2004), Maryland Motor Vehicles Administration: http://www.sha.state.md.us/safety/motorcycle.asp. McKnight, A. J., and McKnight, A. S. (1994). The effects of motorcycle helmets upon seeing and hearing. Report No. DOT HS 808 399. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. VII-5

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES McSwain, N. E., Jr., and Petrucelli, E. (1984). Medical consequences of motorcycle helmet nonusage. Journal of Trauma, 24(3):233236. McSwain, N. E., and Willey, A. B. (1984). Impact of the Re-Enactment of the Motorcycle Helmet Law in Louisiana. New Orleans: Tulane University School of Medicine. Minnesota Department of Public Safety (1998). Enhanced Motorcycle Licensing Project: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/outreach/safedige/Winter1999/n5-128.html. Minnesota Motorcycle Safety Program: http://www.motorcyclesafety.state.mn.us/. Mitchell, K. A., Kufera, J. A., Ballestros, M. F., Smialek, J. E., and Dischinger, P. C. (2001). Autopsy Study of Motorcycle Fatalities: The Effect of the 1992 Maryland Helmet Use Law. Orlando, FL: Paper presented to the International Motorcycle Safety Conference. Motorcycle Council of NSW, Inc. References on Protective Clothing--http://www.roadsafety. mccofnsw.org.au/a/90.html. Motorcycle Industry Council (2000): http://www.mic.org. Motorcycle Safety Foundation: http://www.msf-usa.org/. Motorcycle Safety Foundation (2004). How Are Your Rider Training Programs Delivered? http://www.msf-usa.org. Motorists Information, Inc. (1978). Michigan Safety Belt Project. Detroit, Michigan. Mounce, N., Brackett, Q., Hinshaw, W., Lund, A. K., and Wells, J. K. (1992). The Reinstated Comprehensive Motorcycle Helmet Law in Texas. Arlington, VA: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Muelleman, R. L., Mlinek, E. J., and Collicott, P. E. (1991). Motorcycle crash injuries and costs: effect of a re-enacted comprehensive helmet use law. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 21: 266272. Muller A. (2004). Florida's motorcycle helmet law repeal and fatality rates. American Journal of Public Health, 94(4): 556558. National Association of State Motorcycle Safety Administrators: http://www.smsa.org/ index.php. National Association of State Motorcycle Safety Administrators (2002). SMSA Annual Survey, 2001--http://www.smsa.org/. National Association of State Motorcycle Safety Administrators (2003). SMSA Annual Survey, 2003--http://www.smsa.org/index.php; username: survey; password: visitor. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/ pedbimot/motorcycle/. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1980). A Report to the Congress on the Effect of Motorcycle Helmet Use Law Repeal--A Case for Helmet Use. Washington, DC. VII-6

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1996). The Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES). Report No. DOT HS 808 338. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/ NCSA/CODES/codestch.pdf. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1996). Report to Congress: Benefits of Safety Belts and Motorcycle Helmets, Based on Data from the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES). Report No. DOT HS 808 347. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/ CODES/codesrpt.pdf. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1998). Further Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Using CODES Linked Data. Research Note. Washington DC: National Center for Statistics and Analysis. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2000). National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/00-NHT-212- motorcycle/toc.html. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2001). Fatal Single Vehicle Motorcycle Crashes. National Center for Statistics and Analysis. Report No. HS-809 360. http://www-nrd.nhtsa. dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/Rpts/2001/809-360.pdf. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2002). Traffic Safety Facts 2002-Motorcycles. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/ nrd-30/NCSA/TSF2002/2002mcyfacts.pdf. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2003a). Drinking, Riding and Prevention: A Focus Group Study. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/ DrinkRidePrevent/. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2003b). Final Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria (MMUCC) Second Edition. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/ MMUCC/2003/MMUCC_02.pdf. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Motorcycle Safety Program (2003)-- http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/motorcycle03/ moto_operational.htm. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2004). Traffic Safety Facts 2003-Motorcycles. Report No. DOT HS 809 764. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/PPT/PresMCFatsUpdate.pdf. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2005). Traffic Safety Facts 2005. Report No. DOT HS 810 620. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. http:/ /www-nrd. nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/810620.pdf. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2006). Motorcycle Safety Program Plan http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/portal/nhtsa_static_file_downloader.jsp?file=/staticfiles/DOT/ NHTSA/Traffic Injury Control/Articles/Associated Files/MotorcycleSafety2006.pdf. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2006a). Motorcycle helmet use laws. Traffic Safety Facts. Laws. Washington, DC. VII-7

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2006b). Traffic Safety Facts 2006-Motorcycles. Report No. DOT HS-810-806. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/810806.pdf. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2007). "The Detection of DWI Motorcyclists" (brochure). Report No. DOT HS 807 856. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/ pedbimot/motorcycle/610DWIMotorcyWeb/pages/index.htm. Nebraska Department of Public Roads (1975). A Study of Motorcycle Traffic Accidents in Nebraska. Lincoln, Nebraska. Newman, J. (1974). The Protective Value of Contemporary Motorcycle Helmets in the Prevention of Head Injuries. Ottawa: University of Ottawa, Canada. Nichols, J. L. (2002). Methods to Increase Seat Belt Use: A Review of What Works. Washington, D.C.: Prepared for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Integrated Project Team. Oakland County Traffic Improvement Association (1969). A Report on the Activities and Measured Effectiveness of a Public Education Program for Safety Belt Use. Oakland County, Michigan. Oketch, T. G. (2000). A new modeling approach to mixed-traffic streams with non-motorized vehicles. In Transportation Research Record 1705. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, pp. 6169. Ouellet, J. (1982). Environmental hazards in motorcycle accidents. 26th Annual Proceedings of the American Association for Automotive Medicine, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 117129. Peek-Asa, C., McArthur, D. L., and Kraus, J. F. (1999). The prevalence of non-standard helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle riders. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31(3):22933. Perkins, D. D., Cynecki, M. J., and Goryl, M. (1984). Restraint System Usage in the Traffic Population. Report No. DOT HS 806 582. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Phillips, B. M. (1983). Restraint System Usage in the Traffic Population. Contract DTNH-22- 80-C-07283. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Phillips, B. M. (1980). Safety Belt Use Among Drivers; Use of Child Restraint Devices; Motorcycle Helmet Usage. Contract DOT HS 7 01736. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Preusser, D. F., Hedlund, J. H., and Ulmer, R. G. (2000). Evaluation of Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal in Arkansas and Texas. Report No. DOT HS 809 112. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Robertson, L. S., Kelley, A. B., O'Neill, B., Wixom, C. W., Eiswirth, R. S., and Haddon, W., Jr. (1974). A Controlled Study of the Effect of Television Messages on Safety Belt Use. Washington, DC (now Arlington, VA): Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Ross, H. E., Jr., Sicking, D. L., and Zimmer, R. A. (1993). NCHRP Report 350: Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Highway Features. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. VII-8

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES Rowland, J., Rivara, F. P., Salzberg, P., Soderberg, R., Maier, R. V., and Koepsell, T. (1996). Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington state. American Journal of Public Health 86:4145. Sakar, S., Peek, C., and Kraus, J. F. (1995). Fatal injuries in motorcycle riders according to helmet use. Journal of Trauma 38:242245. Sala, G., and Astori, P. (1998). New Concepts and Materials for Passive Safety of Motorcyclists. Goteborg, Germany: Proceedings of the IRCOBI Conference, pp. 425436. Shankar, U. G. (2004a). Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Motorcycle Crashes. Research Note. Report No. HS-809 576. National Center for Statistics and Analysis. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/RNotes/ 2003/809-576.pdf. Shankar, U. G. (2004). Motorcyclist Fatalities: an Update. San Diego, CA: Presented at Lifesavers Conference. Shankar, U. G. (2001). Recent Trends in Fatal Motorcycle Crashes. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/809-271.pdf. Sosin, D. M., and Sacks, J. J. (1992). Motorcycle helmet-use laws and head injury prevention. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267(12):16491651. Struckman-Johnson, C., and Ellingstad, V. S. (1979). Impact of Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal in South Dakota 197679. Report No. DOT HS 803 996. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Subramanian, R. (2003). Recent Trends in Alcohol-Related Fatality Rates. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/809-680.pdf. TEAM OREGON Motorcycle Safety Program (2002). Forecasting the Future: A Manager's Guide to Program Health and Sustainability. http://teamoregon.orst.edu. TEAM OREGON Motorcycle Safety Program (2004). BRT Classroom Field Test. Oregon State University. TEAM OREGON Motorcycle Safety Program (2004). BRT Range Field Test. Oregon State University. Thom, D. R., Hurt, H. H., Jr., Smith, T. A., and Ouellet, J. V. (1997). Feasibility Study of Upgrading FMVSS No. 218 Motorcycle Helmets. Final Report Contract No. DTNH22-97-P-02001. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Transportation Research Board Committee on Motorcycles and Mopeds (1994). Research Problem Statements for Motorcycles and Mopeds. In Transportation Research Circular 424. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Turner, P. A., and Georggi, N. L. (2001). Analysis of Alcohol-Related Motorcycle Crashes in Florida and Recommended Countermeasures. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1779. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, pp. 189196. Turner, P. A., and Hagelin, C. A. (2000). Novelty Helmet Use by Motorcycle Riders in Florida. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1734. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, pp. 6976. VII-9

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES Ulmer, R. G., and Preusser, D. F. (2003). Evaluation of the Repeal of Motorcycle Helmet Laws in Kentucky and Louisiana. Report No. DOT HS 809 530. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Ulmer, R. G., and Shabanova-Northrup, V. S. (2005). Evaluation of the Repeal of the All-Rider Motorcycle Helmet Law in Florida. Report No. DOT HS 809 849. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. U.S. General Accounting Office (1991). Highway Safety: Motorcycle Helmet Laws Save Lives and Reduce Costs to Society. Washington, DC: Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division. U.S. Department of Transportation. 2001 National Household Travel Survey. http://www.bts. gov/publications/highlights_of_the_2001_national_household_travel_survey/. U.S. Department of Transportation. 1995 National Personal Travel Survey. http://www.bts. gov/programs/national_household_travel_survey/. Vance, R., Williams, J., and Rutherford, G. S. (2004). Flexcar Seattle Member Attitude and Usage Survey. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board 83rd Annual Meeting. Van Moorhem, W. K., Shepherd, K. P., Magleby, T. D., and Torian, G. E. (1977). The Effect of Motorcycle Helmets on Hearing and the Detection of Warning Signals. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah. VIC Roads Motorcycle Notes--Motorcycle Signage http://www.vicroads.vic.gov.au/NR/ rdonlyres/20ACC651-A990-40AD-8092-CD19A6F47D6D/0/tr2001105.pdf Virginia Department of Transportation--Motorcycle Safety Action Team http://www. virginiadot.org/programs/resources/3motorcycle.pdf Wang, Y., and Nihan, N. L. (2000). Estimating the Risk of Collisions Between Bicycles and Automobiles at Signalized Intersections. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board 81st Annual Meeting. Washington Department of Licensing--2005 http://apps.leg.wa.gov/rcw Wells, S., Mullin, B., Norton, R., Langley, J., Connor, J., Lay-Yee, R., and Jackson, R. (2004). Motorcycle Rider Conspicuity and Crash Related Injury: Case-Controlled Study. BMJ 328:857 (10 April) doi:10.1136/bmj.37984.574757.EE (Published 23 January 2004). Williams, J. M., and Cleary, J. D. (1981). Minnesota Motorcycle Fatality Rates and the Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal: A Summary Report. St. Paul: Minnesota House of Representatives, Research Department. Winn, G. L., and Bucy, D. S. (1997). Technology vs. Culture: Improving the Efficiency of Traffic Crash Data Collection in West Virginia. Lisbon, Portugal: Seventh International Conference: Traffic Safety on Two Continents, September 2224, 1997. Winn, G. L., Carr, M., and Bucy, D. S. (1999). State Crash Report Data Elements for Motorcycles. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board 78th Annual Meeting. Wisconsin Department of Transportation--2004 Motorcycle Safety Action Plan http://www.dot.wisconsin.gov/library/publications/topic/safety/motorcycleplan.pdf VII-10

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES Zaloshnja, E., Miller, T., Romano, E., and Spicer, R. (2004). Crash costs by body part injured, fracture involvement, and threat-to-life severity, United States, 2000. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 36:415427. Zegeer, C. V., Deen, R. C., and Mayes, J. G. (1981). Effect of Lane and Shoulder Width on Accident Reduction on Rural, Two-Lane Roads. In Transportation Research Record 806. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, pp. 3343. Zegeer, C. V., Reinfurt, D. W., Hummer, J., Herf, L., and Hunter, W. (1988). Safety Effects of Cross-Section Design for Two-Lane Roads. In Transportation Research Record 1195. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, pp. 2032. Zuckier, G., Jacobs, L., and Thibeault, L. (1999). Using Linked Data To Evaluate Medical and Financial Outcomes of Motor Vehicle Crashes in Connecticut. Report No. DOT HS 808 972. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, September 1999. VII-11