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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Experimental (E): Those strategies that are ideas that have been suggested and at least one agency has considered sufficiently promising to try them on a small scale in at least one location. These strategies should be considered only after the others have proven not to be appropriate or feasible. Even where they are considered, their implementation should initially occur using a very controlled and limited pilot study which includes a properly designed evaluation component. Only after careful testing and evaluations show the strategy to be effective should broader implementation be considered. It is intended that as the experiences of such pilot tests are accumulated from various state and local agencies, the aggregate experience can be used to further detail the attributes of this type of strategy, so that it can be upgraded to a "proven" one. Targeting the Objectives The objectives contained in this guide are intended to target a variety of issues and a broad audience. Because motorcycle safety cannot be pinpointed to one controlling factor, neither can the responsibility of providing this safety fall solely upon the shoulders of the motor- cyclist, or one group of professionals. It is thus appropriate that this guide provide objectives that are far-reaching and that encompass many areas of expertise. Meaningful progress toward accomplishing the above objectives will be achieved when all stakeholders--licensing officials, roadway users, motorcycle riders, roadway designers, law enforcement, and legislators--take responsibility for implementing those strategies within their area of responsibility. Success will be measured in motorcyclists' lives saved and serious injuries that are averted on the roadways. Related Strategies for Creating a Truly Comprehensive Approach The strategies listed above, and described in detail below, are those largely unique to the motorcycle safety emphasis area. However, to create a truly comprehensive approach to the highway safety problems associated with this emphasis area, there are related strategies that may be included as candidates in any program planning process. These strategies can be organized into five categories: Public Information and Education Programs (PI&E)--Highway safety programs can be effectively enhanced with a properly designed PI&E campaign. The primary objective of a PI&E campaign in highway safety is to reach an audience across an entire jurisdiction, or a significant part of it. However, it may be desired to focus a PI&E campaign on a location- specific problem. While this is a relatively untried approach, as compared to area-wide campaigns, use of roadside signs and other experimental methods may be tried on a pilot basis. Within this guide, where the application of PI&E campaigns is deemed appropriate, it is usually in support of some other strategy. In such a case, the description for that strategy will suggest the possible use of a PI&E campaign (see the attribute area for each strategy entitled, "Associated Needs for, or Relation to, Support Services"). Enforcement of Traffic Laws--Well-designed, well-operated law enforcement programs can have a significant effect on highway safety. It is well established, for instance, that an effective way to reduce crashes and their severity is to have jurisdiction-wide programs that enforce an effective law against driving under the influence (DUI), or driving without seatbelts. When that law is vigorously enforced, with well-trained officers, the frequency and severity of highway crashes can be significantly reduced. This is considered an important element in V-5
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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES any comprehensive highway safety program. Enforcement programs are conducted at specific locations by the nature of how they must be performed. The effect (e.g., lower speeds, greater use of seatbelts, and reduced impaired driving) may occur at or near the specific location where the enforcement is applied. Coordinating the effort with an appropriate PI&E program can often enhance this effect. However, in many cases (e.g., speeding and seatbelt usage) the impact is area-wide or jurisdiction-wide. The effect can be either positive (i.e., the desired reductions occur over a greater part of the system), or negative (i.e., the problem moves to another location as road users move to new routes where enforcement is not applied). A pilot program is useful when it is unclear how the enforcement effort may impact behavior, or where it is desired to try an innovative and untried method. Within this guide, where the application of enforcement programs is deemed appropriate, it is often in support of some other strategy. Many of those strategies may be targeted at either a whole system, or a specific location. In such cases, the description for that strategy will suggest this possibility (see the attribute area for each strategy entitled, "Associated Needs for, or Relation to, Support Services"). Strategies to Improve Emergency Medical and Trauma System Services--Treatment of injured parties at highway crashes can have a significant impact on the level of severity and length of time that an individual spends in treatment. This is especially true when it comes to timely and appropriate treatment of severely injured persons. Thus, a well-based and comprehensive emergency care program is a basic part of a highway safety infrastructure. While the types of strategies that are included here are often thought of as simply support services, they can be critical to the success of a comprehensive highway safety program. Therefore, it is beneficial for a comprehensive motorcycle safety effort to include a critical review of the emergency medical and trauma system services to determine if there are improvements that can be made, especially for programs which are focused on location- specific (e.g., corridors), or area-specific (e.g., rural areas) issues. A separate guide has been developed to address the design and implementation of emergency medical systems strategies in rural areas (http://safety.transportation.org/guides.aspx?cid=36). Strategies Directed at Improving the Safety Management System--he management of the highway safety system is essential to success. Thus it follows that a sound organizational structure, as well as infrastructure of laws, policies, etc., should be in place to monitor, control, direct and administer a comprehensive approach to highway safety. It is important that a comprehensive program include a standardized system of crash data coding, collecting and analysis. While motorcycles are often overlooked during the collection of crash data, many states are recognizing the benefits of using existing crash data as a tool for monitoring highway safety and for the development of safety countermeasures. Until another comprehensive motorcycle crash causation study is conducted, this data can serve as a useful tool to better understand motorcycle crash causation. (Objective A of this guide specifically addresses the need to improve the coding, collection, and analysis of motorcycle crash data.) It is important that a comprehensive safety management program not be limited to one jurisdiction, such as a state DOT. Local agencies are often responsible for the majority of the road system. Furthermore, many different groups (e.g., law enforcement, data entry specialists, and data analysts) are needed in the standardization of motorcycle crash data. Strategies That Are Detailed in Other Emphasis Area Guides--Motorcycles, while unique in many regards, are still motor vehicles and subject to many of the same issues and solutions that are discussed for other vehicles. Therefore, most of the other guides in this series have strategies that may also improve motorcycle safety. The reader is encouraged to review each of the other guides, as well. V-6