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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing This Strategy Many cities and regions have implemented pothole hotlines and Internet-based notification systems. Some examples include: St. Louis, Missouri http://stlcin.missouri.org/release/getpressdetails.cfm?Auto=670 Durham, North Carolina http://www.ci.durham.nc.us/departments/works/pothole.cfm Seattle, Washington http://www.cityofseattle.net/transportation/potholereport.htm Additionally, motorcyclist groups and organizations have created reporting resources for their memberships that include the phone numbers or websites of various highway agencies within a specific district or region. Members report roadway problems they encounter while on the road. Oregon's Governor's Motorcycle Safety Advisory Committee created a business card-sized resource listing the phone numbers of the major highway districts in Oregon. These cards were made available to motorcyclists across the state through motorcycle dealers and clubs. Objective 11.1 B--Reduce the Number of Motorcycle Crashes Due to Rider Impairment Strategy 11.1 B1--Increase Motorcyclist Awareness of the Risks of Impaired Motorcycle Operation (T) General Description Riding a motorcycle while under the influence of alcohol, drugs or other intoxicants is a leading cause of fatal crashes involving motorcycles. While alcohol involvement in motor- cycle crashes has shown a steady decline (from 49 percent in 1992 to 27 percent in 2006), over one-third of operators (36 percent) involved in fatal crashes were found to have been drinking prior to the crash (FARS, 2006). Alcohol involvement among motorcycle crashes is higher than crashes involving other vehicle types (FARS, 2006). In 2006, almost one-half (41 percent) of all motorcycle riders who died in single-vehicle crashes were intoxicated (i.e., blood alcohol content of 0.08 g/dL or greater), and almost two-thirds (59 percent) of those killed in single-vehicle crashes on weekend nights were intoxicated (FARS, 2006). Clearly, the operation of a motorcycle combined with alcohol or other substances can lead to deadly consequences for motorcycle riders and passengers. The National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety (NAMS) provides guidance for enhancing motorcycle safety at the national, state, and local levels. Based on information and ideas from a broad, multidisciplinary spectrum of stakeholders, as well as the most objective data available, a number of proposals for improving motorcycle safety were developed and categorized into three groups: urgent, essential, and necessary. One of the "urgent" items that addresses the problem of alcohol and other impairments as they relate to motorcycle safety is the following: Continue to discourage mixing alcohol and other drugs with motorcycling. V-35

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES The following points were identified as essential: Study how alcohol, drugs and other substances, including over-the-counter medications, can affect a motorcyclist's operating skills Study the alcohol, drug, and other substance use patterns of motorcyclists Educate law enforcement about unique alcohol-related behavior of motorcyclists Encourage partnerships with groups already involved in alcohol/substance abuse issues related to motor vehicle crashes, e.g., Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD) Motorcycles require a greater level of finesse and skill to operate than automobiles or small trucks. Because they are single-track vehicles, motorcycles have to be balanced at a stop and are less stable at low speeds. Operating a motorcycle requires the coordinated use of both hands and both feet. Riders are exposed to the elements which, after extended exposure, can dull the rider's senses. Motorcycles are harder to see in traffic, a condition amplified in low light conditions. With the amount of skill and attention required to safely operate a motorcycle, anything that impairs concentration, coordination, and judgment can be fatal. The article "Finding Fault in Motorcycle Crashes in Hawaii: Environmental, Temporal, Spatial and Human Factors" (Kim, 2001) identifies the following factors: Factors that increase the odds of a motorcyclist being at-fault in a collision include if the motorcyclist was inattentive, or exhibited misjudgment, engaged in speeding or improper overtaking, or followed too closely. Drivers were more likely to be at-fault if they exhibited inattention or misjudgment, they failed to yield, or their vision was impaired. Alcohol- impaired drivers were 16.9 times more likely than sober drivers to be classified at-fault. While turning actions also increased the odds of a driver being at-fault, accidents occurring on curved roads increased the odds of the motorcyclist being classified at-fault. The National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety (NHTSA, 2000) lists some additional factors. The effects of prescription, over-the-counter, and illegal drugs are unknown as they relate to motorcycle crashes. The dulling affects of extended exposure to the elements (heat, cold, wind, rain, etc), or the effect of other impairments such as drowsiness, allergies, etc. are known to play a role in crashes, but these relationships have not been studied in detail. Most transportation safety measures target motorists and fail to consider the unique conditions faced by the motorcycle riding population. Transportation safety practitioners should examine statewide/regional crash data to determine the extent of the problem that a state or region faces with impaired motorcycle operation, including the use of drugs other than alcohol. Findings should be incorporated into the highway agency safety plan. Enforcement officials should be advised and trained in how to recognize impaired motorcycle operators. Public information programs should be designed to (a) target the demographic over-represented in motorcycle crashes, (b) inform the public of the problem of impaired motorcycle operation, and (c) foster and promote the safe and responsible use of motorcycles. The report, Drinking, Riding, and Prevention: A Focus Group Study (Becker et al., 2003) explores effective prevention and intervention approaches for dealing with the drinking rider problem. The findings indicate: Riders often discourage their peers from riding after drinking, but a culturally reinforced respect for rider freedom and individual responsibility sets boundaries for peer actions. V-36

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Rider concern for the safety and security of the motorcycle itself nearly always overshad- ows concern for individual safety and contributes to drinking and riding. That is, motor- cyclists are less inclined to abandon their motorcycle to accept a ride home than motor vehicle drivers are to abandon their vehicle. Motorcycle impoundment and court-ordered payment of costs for vehicle storage, alco- hol treatment programs, and other costs are considered persuasive countermeasures. The report concludes that "the results suggest that future drinking-and-riding prevention efforts should incorporate peer approaches and social norms modeling. Crisis Intervention Techniques may be valuable in preventing already impaired riders from operating their motorcycles." Success in this strategy requires a coordinated effort among government, motorcycle users, and law enforcement to identify problem areas and times. A comprehensive plan of public information, education, enforcement and intervention should be developed. EXHIBIT V-28 Strategy Attributes for Increasing Motorcyclist Awareness of the Risks of Impaired Motorcycle Operation Technical Attributes Target The primary target is the population of motorcycle operators, especially those that are over-represented in motorcycle crashes in the state/region. Expected Effectiveness No formal evaluation has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of this strategy at reducing motorcycle fatalities. Keys to Success Success in this strategy requires a coordinated effort among government, motorcycle users, and law enforcement to identify problem areas and times. This stakeholder group should work together to fully understand the scope of the problem, the target audience, and available community resources. Law enforcement and judicial communities should be involved to help develop methods to increase awareness of impaired operation, implement solutions and enforce violations. Motorcycle safety advisory and advocacy groups should be enlisted to provide key support and leadership to the motorcycling community. Drug recognition evaluators (DRE) should be among the key stakeholders involved with this initiative. A comprehensive plan of public information, education, enforcement and intervention should be developed. Examples include: Media and/or Public Service Announcement campaign DRE training for motorcycle safety instructors/program personnel Development of educational materials targeting motorcyclists Drinking/drugs/riding meetings or conferences with the motorcycling community leaders, DRE and other key stakeholders Enhanced enforcement training, awareness and support Public information and education campaigns should be targeted to the local demographic over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. The Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF) has created a set of alcohol awareness ads in a variety of sizes and formats. MSF provides these ads free of charge. V-37

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-28 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Increasing Motorcyclist Awareness of the Risks of Impaired Motorcycle Operation Potential Difficulties A potential difficulty with this strategy is accurately targeting the appropriate group of motorcyclists. That is, it may be difficult for highway agencies, and the group of stakeholders with which they are working, to identify where motorcyclists congregate and can be expected to view the public information material. Appropriate Measures Increased awareness among the community of transportation safety specialists, and Data data analysts, and policy makers is one appropriate measure of expected effectiveness. Reliable data are needed for both program operation and program evaluation. The representation of alcohol and other drugs in motorcycle crash data should be identified. Data on crash involvement of motorcycle operators should be monitored and measured against baseline data. Findings should be shared with key stakeholders and support enlisted. Specific deterrence measures should include statewide/regional analysis of the following variables: Number of motorcycle crashes Location of motorcycle crashes Crash type comparison--single-vehicle versus multi-vehicle Crash type comparison with +BAC Number of fatalities, percentage with +BAC Time of crash, percentage daytime versus nighttime +BAC Representation of other drugs Representation of unlicensed/unendorsed riders, percentage with +BAC Age of impaired/under influence operation, age group(s) over-represented Baseline comparison of above indicators to other vehicle types Program countermeasures, such as public information and education programs, should include methods to evaluate program effectiveness. Police and court systems should track citations and convictions for motorcycle operators found driving under the influence of intoxicants (DUII). The agency's FARS specialist should track and publish statewide annual motorcycle crash statistics that include the number of crashes where alcohol has been involved. Associated Needs The media play a critical role in information dissemination. Special public information and education programs are necessary to supplement the improvement program. Alliance with the motorcycle community will provide contacts with key stakeholders, event notification and access to the targeted demographic. V-38

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-28 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Increasing Motorcyclist Awareness of the Risks of Impaired Motorcycle Operation Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Central to the success of any motorcycle safety initiative is to form alliances with Institutional and Policy key stakeholders in transportation and motorcycle safety, licensing, enforcement Issues and the motorcycle community. Many state governments support a Motorcycle Safety Advisory Committee (MSAC) through statute or rule. Often, these committees comprise motorcycle leaders, authorities and activists from across the state, and include representatives from state police, DMV, transportation safety and the state's motorcycle safety program. Partnering with MSAC groups is essential to begin to (a) understand the problems motorcyclists face and (b) provide a mechanism to convey information between researchers, policy makers and the state leaders and activists within the motorcycling community. Issues Affecting A public awareness campaign aimed at motorcyclists should be Implementation Time targeted around the prime riding season, when public awareness material can be distributed at locations where motorcyclists are most likely to be congregating (e.g., riding events, etc.). Highway agencies need to begin working on this strategy well in advance of the prime riding season in order to have the public awareness campaign ready. Costs Involved The costs associated with increasing the awareness of impaired motorcycle operation can vary widely, depending on the scope of activities. At a minimum, key personnel should be assigned to coordinate the treatment by working with data analysts, statisticians, safety practitioners, licensing and enforcement personnel and the motorcycle community. There will also be costs associated with a public information campaign. Training and Other Increasing the awareness of impaired motorcycle operation does not require training Personnel Needs or additional agency personnel, but it does require awareness of the problem by personnel assigned to treat drinking and driving issues, a priority to take corrective action, and a willingness to partner with key stakeholders to begin the process of effecting change. Support of the Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) program is important. DRE trainers can educate the stakeholder group on the effects of drugs/alcohol on a rider's ability to operate a motorcycle safely. The DRE trainers can provide necessary education and information for motorcycle safety personnel/instructors and at advisory committees and motorcyclist group/club meetings. Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes None identified. V-39

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-29 MSF Advertisement Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing This Strategy The National Association of State Motorcycle Safety Administrators (SMSA) collects samples of campaigns, advertisements, billboards, posters, brochures and bumper stickers that several states have used to treat the impaired riding problem. Contact SMSA for more information: http://www.smsa.org/motorcycle_awareness/promotional_materials/. The Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF) has developed drinking and riding public service announcements (PSAs) for print and web applications in a variety of sizes and formats and will provide them at no cost to the state. Contact the MSF for more information: http://msf-usa.org. Riders Helping Riders (RHR) is an instructional program developed by NHTSA designed to encourage motorcyclists to intervene to prevent drinking and riding by their motor- cyclist peers. The program provides a "toolkit" of tech- EXHIBIT V-30 niques for separating drinking from riding, discouraging AMA Advertisement riders from becoming impaired, recognizing impairment, and discouraging impaired riders from riding. More information can be found on NHTSA's website: http:// www.nhtsa.dot.gov/portal/site/nhtsa/template. MAXIMIZE/menuitem.d7975d55e8abbe089ca8e410 dba046a0/?javax.portlet.tpst=4670b93a0b088a006bc1d6 b760008a0c_ws_MX&javax.portlet.prp_4670b93a0b088a006 bc1d6b760008a0c_viewID=detail_view&itemID=0d6576 ca7dcb8110VgnVCM1000002fd17898RCRD&override ViewName=Article. The American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) has partnered with NHTSA to create, broadcast and support campaigns that address the drinking rider problem. The website below features a wide range of educational and informational resources, in V-40

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-31 Samples of Minnesota Public Information Materials addition to links to other motorcycle safety programs: http://www.ridestraight.com. Various states have created public information materials and campaigns targeting the drinking rider. Oregon: http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/TS/ Connecticut: http://www.ride4ever.org/ Missouri: http://www.mmsp.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id= 28&Itemid=47 Minnesota: http://www.motorcyclesafety.state.mn.us/ For more information on state motorcycle safety activities, visit the SMSA website: http:// www.smsa.org/index.php. Strategy 11.1 B2--Expand Existing Impairment Prevention Programs to Include Motorcycle Riders and Specific Motorcycle Events (T) General Description Many motorcyclists accept the risk of riding in exchange for the perception of freedom and adventure. The popularity of motorcycling has soared, spawning the promotion of rider groups, rallies and events. Motorcycle-related functions have increased in number and size, and are scheduled year-round throughout the United States. A visit to the AMA website (http://www.amadirectlink.com/news.asp) yields 25 different types of riding events, from Bike Show to Fun Run, Poker Run, and the Gypsy tour. Some manufacturers promote riding by sponsoring riding groups and events. An example of the strength of group affiliation and brand loyalty can be witnessed in the motorcycle industry's rider group. The Harley Owner's Group (HOG) is the largest group, with over 800,000 members around the world. Honda's Rider Club of America (HRCA) boasts a membership of 300,000 members. Other rider organizations not operated by the marquee include BMW Owners of America, the Gold Wing Road Riders Association, and the Yamaha Royal Star Touring and Riding V-41

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Association, to name a few. A variety of niche groups also exist, such as: Women on Wheels, Christian Motorcycle Association, Antique Motorcycle Club of America, or the Blue Knights Enforcement Motorcycle Club. Hundreds of sponsored rides, rallies and motorcycling events are held each year and in every state. They are typically scheduled during the summer and can attract thousands of riders. A good reference is http://motorcycleevents.com. While these events are fun for motorcycle riders, the presence of alcohol at some of these events can bring about an increase in alcohol-related motorcycle crashes. According to Analysis of Alcohol- Related Motorcycle Crashes in Florida and Recommended Countermeasures (Turner and Georggi, 2001): Approximately one-third of all alcohol-related motorcycle crashes in Florida occur in the springtime months (March through May). March has the highest proportion of alcohol- related crashes (13 percent), which may be related to annual motorcycle events (Bike Week) held in Florida during that month. More motorcyclists were killed at Bike Week 2000 (11 motorcyclists died) than during any other time in the event's 59-year history (Tampa Tribune, 2000). Thus, it may be worthwhile to intensify efforts to promote responsible riding well in advance of the annual motorcycle event. The report also states that, "The cumulative effect of vehicle, road, and environmental factors in alcohol-related motorcycle crashes is negligible which suggests that human factors play a greater role in motorcycle-alcohol crashes than factors associated with the vehicle, road and the environment surrounding the crash." The effect of such events on the community health care system can be staggering, as described in Epidemiology of Mass Casualties during Bike Week 2000, Daytona Beach, Florida (Kanny et al., 2003). Although fatalities first called attention to the problem, nonfatal injuries outnumbered fatalities 20:1. The manpower resources of civil service and health resources could become overwhelmed or exhausted in circumstances in which many people are injured or killed throughout a relatively long period. The situation deserves future study. Better risk factor surveillance is needed to help prevent crashes. EXHIBIT V-32 Crash, Injury and Death Frequency by Study Period Source: Kanny et al., 2003 Crash, injury, and death frequency by study period.* Bike Week 2000 Bike Week 1999 Characteristics No. % No. % People involved 570 100 387 100 Crashes 281 201 Deaths 11 2 5 1 Hospitalizations 72 13 55 14 ED visits 147 26 108 28 Total injured 230 40 168 43 Uninjured 340 60 219 57 * Percentages may not add up to 100% because of rounding. V-42

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Many groups and organizations meet in bars and taverns. Some groups sponsor tavern- to-tavern rides, and some rallies find a large percentage of attendees relaxing in bars and beer gardens. In fact, the alcoholic beverage industry has even sponsored motor- cycle events. In recent years, some organizers have taken steps to curb drinking and riding by hosting activities and events such as concerts, parades, bike shows, swap meets, guided tours, etc. Some groups prohibit alcohol while others close the gates at the end of the day to prevent participants from riding away after drinking. Others provide free shuttle service. Both riders and event organizers have taken action to curb drinking and riding because no one wants avoidable injury or fatal crashes due to alcohol to occur. However, much ground can be gained in the fight to reduce the number of alcohol-related crashes, injuries, and fatalities by partnering with event organizers to keep the event safe and enjoyable. A highway agency can target this audience by coordinating with key stakeholders and event planners to foster and promote responsible viewpoints on drinking and riding. With thousands of riders descending upon a community or region, the potential for crashes and injuries is magnified. Awareness and early action can reduce injuries and fatalities. Personnel currently involved in drinking/driving programs for motorists should expand those programs to include motorcyclists and partner with event organizers and other stakeholders to promote a safe event. EXHIBIT V-33 Strategy Attributes for Expanding Existing Impairment Prevention Programs to Include Motorcycle Riders and Specific Motorcycle Events Technical Attributes Target The target for this strategy includes motorcycle riders, promoters and organizers of motorcycle rallies and events, law enforcement, and transportation safety personnel. Expected Effectiveness There have been no formal evaluations of the effectiveness of this strategy. However, with a large concentration of riders traveling key routes to and from events, the opportunity to enhance safety and promote responsible riding has never been better. Keys to Success Keys to success lie in forming strategic alliances with the motorcycling community, such as with a motorcycle safety advisory committee. This community can work closely with the highway agency to (a) inform and include the agency in event planning and (b) identify countermeasures and create opportunities for the agency to treat the drinking/riding problem. Team members should be drawn from enforcement, engineering and highway agency transportation safety and motorcycle safety officials, as well as members of the motorcycling community responsible for events. Officials currently involved in alcohol/drug crash prevention programs should be involved. Potential Difficulties Potential reluctance of the highway agency to capitalize on this opportunity presents the greatest difficulty, as the activity may be seen as simply an enforcement issue. Transportation safety officials who are treating the drinking/driving problem may not be aware of the extent of the drinking/riding problem for motorcyclists and may lack the necessary resources to treat the issue. Active partnering with the motorcyclists and highway agency motorcycle safety specialists is the first step in problem identification and treatment. V-43

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-33 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Expanding Existing Impairment Prevention Programs to Include Motorcycle Riders and Specific Motorcycle Events Appropriate Measures Reliable data are needed for both program operation and program evaluation. Identify and Data the presence of regional riding events and determine expected attendance per event. Establish baseline data by researching motorcycle crash history (frequency and severity) associated with the time and location of the event(s). Identify the representation of alcohol and other drugs in these data. Compare these data with present data before, during, and after the event. Specific measures should include: Name, affiliation and location of all known riding events statewide Number of contacts made with stakeholders and event organizers Number of events where partnering strategy is employed o Number of event attendees o Number of motorcycle crashes in the region where event is taking place o Number of fatalities o Representation of alcohol o Representation of other drugs o Representation of impaired operation (0.01-0.07 BAC) o Time of day o Location of crashes o Rider age of impaired/under the influence operation Program countermeasures, such as public information and education programs, should include measures to determine the effectiveness of the message and effort. Police and court systems should track citations and convictions for motorcycle operator DUII. Associated Needs None identified. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, This strategy can bring about immediate awareness, goodwill and success. Institutional and Motorcyclists want a safe event, and often fail to recognize even simple measures Policy Issues that can bring about that safety, such as peer-to-peer intervention, or providing security for motorcycles that impaired riders would otherwise be reluctant to leave unattended overnight. Active partnering with motorcycle community leaders, law enforcement, transportation and motorcycle safety officials and event organizers will assure the safest event possible. Include personnel currently involved with drinking/driving programs. It is possible that the insurance industry would be interested in playing a role as well. Many resources already exist that can be applied to this constituency at these events. This strategy can easily be combined with other motorcycle safety strategies that involve key stakeholders. V-44

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-33 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Expanding Existing Impairment Prevention Programs to Include Motorcycle Riders and Specific Motorcycle Events Issues Affecting Adequate lead-time must be established to help ensure safe and successful Implementation Time events and to develop promotional materials. Personnel currently active in drinking/ driving programs should be engaged to allow time for adequate planning. The stakeholder team will require data and time to analyze conditions surrounding event locations. Costs Involved Costs vary widely depending on the size of the motorcycle event and the specific action taken; however, many elements of this strategy can be implemented at very low costs. Training and Other Expanding existing impairment prevention programs to include motorcycle riders Personnel Needs and specific motorcycle events does not necessarily require training or additional agency personnel, but it does require an awareness of the over-representation of alcohol involvement in motorcycle crashes as compared to crashes involving other vehicle types. It also requires a priority to address this issue and a willingness to partner with key stakeholders to begin the process of effecting change. Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes None identified. Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing This Strategy An example of an effective treatment can be found in the Motorcycle Safety Foundation's (MSF) "Take it Easy" campaign for Daytona Bike Week, 2001. The campaign featured billboards, buses, street banners, posters and airwaves concentration. The "Take It Easy" theme was chosen because it is a commonly used phrase that applied to all aspects of safe riding and driving, including observing all traffic laws, riding or driving unimpaired and respecting all roadway users. The "Take it Easy" goal was to reduce the number of crashes and fatalities associated with Bike Week. See Exhibit V-34. Visit the MSF website at: EXHIBIT V-34 Take It Easy Campaign V-45

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-35 http://www.msf-usa.org/index_new.cfm? Example of Minnesota Motorcycle Safety pagename=Search&content=12D63D09-A0CC- Program Posters 53D5-64764948F882EC77&spl=1&Criteria= &content=B9DA9457-A0CC-53D5-644C591F 676562BC&spl=0. MSF has created a set of print public service announcements in a variety of sizes and formats. MSF provides these free of charge. Visit: http://www.msf-usa.org/. The Minnesota Motorcycle Safety Program has produced creative posters designed to capture the attention of motorcyclists. Other examples can be found by visiting their website. Visit: http://www.motorcyclesafety. state.mn.us/. Strategy 11.1 B3--Target Law Enforcement to Specific Motorcycle Rider Impairment Behaviors That Have Been Shown to Contribute to Crashes (T) General Description The problems associated with impaired operation of motorcycles are detailed in Strategy 11.1 B1, "Increase Motorcyclist Awareness of the Risks of Impaired Motorcycle Operation." Research has shown that, in 2005, motorcyclists were about 37 times as likely as passenger car occupants to die in a traffic crash, and 8 times as likely to be injured (NHTSA, 2006b). A large number of the motorcycle fatalities can be attributed to motorcyclists riding under the influence. Traffic Safety Facts from 2006 also reports the following: In fatal crashes reported in 2006, alcohol involvement among motorcycle drivers was higher than alcohol involvement for passenger cars and light truck drivers. Of the motorcyclists involved in fatal crashes, 89 percent were operators (riders). In 2006, over one-third of motorcycle operators involved in crashes were found to have been drinking prior to the crash. The ratio of intoxicated motorcycle operators to impaired motorcycle operators was nearly 4 to 1. Motorcycle operators were almost twice as likely to test positive for alcohol in single- vehicle crashes compared to multiple-vehicle crashes. Enforcement of DUII laws is an essential element of any comprehensive transportation safety plan. Arming the enforcement community with the necessary tools and training to detect impaired motorcyclists is the key to reducing the number of alcohol-related crashes, injuries and fatalities. V-46

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES In order to address this problem, NHTSA sponsored research to develop a set of behavioral cues that can be used by law enforcement personnel to accurately detect motorcyclists who are operating their vehicles while intoxicated. This research resulted in the development of the "Detection of DWI Motorcyclists" training guide, a "Motorcycle DWI Detection Guide," and a training video. Seventeen cues were identified in this resource that best discriminate between impaired and normal operation of a motorcycle. The cues were labeled as "excellent predictors" and "good predictors." The "excellent" cues predicted impaired motorcycle operation at least 50 percent of the time. The "good" cues predicted impaired motorcycle operation 40 to 49 percent of the time. Most of the behaviors in the "excellent" category were drawn from the special coordination and balance requirements of riding a two-wheeled vehicle. The cues include: Drifting during turn or curve Trouble with dismount Trouble with balance at stop Turning problems Late braking during turn Improper lean angle during turn Erratic movements during turn Inattentive to surroundings Inappropriate or unusual behavior Weaving Erratic movements while going straight Operating without lights at night Recklessness Following too closely Running stop light or sign Evasion Wrong way These training and guidance materials help officers (1) detect impaired motorcyclists, (2) articulate observed behaviors on arrest reports, and (3) support their expert testimony during legal proceedings. These materials are available from NHTSA (NHTSA, 2007). Highway agency personnel should partner with enforcement officials to foster and support officer training and deployment of this resource. Ideally, this training should be incorporated as part of the Standard Field Sobriety Testing taught to law enforcement. All enforcement V-47

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES agency personnel should complete training to become better aware of the visual cues associated with impaired motorcycle operation. This resource and training is especially effective during periods when there is a large concentration of riders that match the following profile (FARS, 2006): Male--87 percent of fatalities are male Ages 3539, 4044 and 4549--these age groups represent the highest alcohol involve- ment of all age groups Riding large motorcycles--operators of motorcycles with large engines had the highest alcohol/crash involvement when compared to operators of other motorcycle engine sizes Riding at night--motorcycle operators killed in traffic crashes at night were 4 times as likely to have BAC levels of 0.08 g/dL or higher than those killed during the day (43 per- cent and 12 percent, respectively). Not wearing a helmet Improperly licensed EXHIBIT V-36 Strategy Attributes for Targeting Law Enforcement to Specific Motorcycle Rider Impairment Behaviors That Have Been Shown to Contribute to Crashes Technical Attributes Target The target of this strategy includes law enforcement agencies, motorcyclists, and large motorcycling events. Expected Effectiveness This strategy has been tried as a means of reducing the incidence of impaired motorcycle operation. While some agencies have reported success, there have not been any formal evaluations of the effectiveness of this strategy at reducing crashes involving impaired motorcyclists. However, when this strategy is incorporated with other DWI strategies and enforcement, the effectiveness of the enforcement effort to target DWI motorcyclists should improve. Keys to Success Keys to success include: Coordination with regional/local law enforcement and transportation and motorcycle safety authorities Involvement of the motorcycling community, such as the Motorcycle Safety Advisory Group Involvement of motorcycling event organizers Training of police personnel to use impairment recognition practices for motorcyclist DWI Targeting of enforcement in conjunction with public information and education at events Involvement of media to support the activity V-48

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-36 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Targeting Law Enforcement to Specific Motorcycle Rider Impairment Behaviors That Have Been Shown to Contribute to Crashes Potential Difficulties A potential difficulty includes achieving cooperation and coordination of multiple agencies across multiple jurisdictions. Also, this may not be a popular campaign with motorcyclists. Some riders may complain that they are being unfairly targeted or take issue with the validity of the visual cues. Event organizers may be reluctant to cooperate. Appropriate Measures Performance can be measured in the short term by the number of stops, number of and Data arrests, percentage of DWI motorcyclists stopped/arrested, and number of alcohol- related crashes and fatalities reported before and after the implementation of the strategy. Associated Needs Partnerships with enforcement, transportation safety and the motorcycling community are critical for long-term success. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Engineering, enforcement and transportation safety personnel often view each Institutional and other as distinct and autonomous entities whose work does not overlap. This strategy Policy Issues requires a team effort between agencies and with the motorcycling community in order to maximize the benefits. Issues Affecting The law enforcement personnel will require NHTSA materials and training. Implementation Time Targeting enforcement will require coordination within and among enforcement agencies. Enforcement personnel need to be trained and deployed. Outcome measures need to be defined and data captured to determine effectiveness of effort and expense. Costs Involved Costs can vary depending on the scope of effort and specific action(s) taken. There will be costs associated with training and materials as well as with organizing and coordinating with the stakeholder team. Training and Other Law enforcement personnel need to complete training to recognize DWI motorcyclists. Personnel Needs The more personnel that are trained, the greater the benefit. Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes None identified. Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing This Strategy "The Detection of DWI Motorcyclists" is a valuable training tool that has been in circulation for more than ten years. More information may be found at the following website: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/610DWI MotorcyWeb/pages/index.htm. V-49