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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Objective 11.1 C--Reduce the Number of Motorcycle Crashes Due to Unlicensed or Untrained Motorcycle Riders Strategy 11.1 C1--Increase Awareness of the Causes of Crashes Due to Unlicensed or Untrained Motorcycle Riders (E) General Description Every year thousands of riders and passengers are injured or killed in motorcycle crashes nationwide. The number of fatal motorcycle crashes has been increasing at an alarming rate since 1997--from 2,116 in 1997 to 3,592 in 2003, representing a 70 percent increase. This trend cannot be easily explained, and research into motorcycle crash causation remains inadequate. A thorough motorcycle crash research study has not been conducted since the landmark "Hurt Study" (Hurt et al., 1981). In the 25 years since the Hurt Study, vast changes have occurred in the motorcycling profile, as reported in The National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety (NHTSA, 2000): The riding demographic has aged considerably, from 24 in 1980 to 38 in 2000. Motorcycle popularity and use have increased. Motorcycles are larger, have greater performance than those of the 1980s, and cost more. Vehicle design, engine size, suspension, braking systems and lighting have all seen dramatic improvements. Sport bikes and cruisers--styles that didn't exist when the Hurt Study data was collected in the late 1970s--are top sellers. States have improved licensing programs and established rider training and motorcycle safety programs across the nation, yet the effectiveness of these programs has not been measured or quantified. In the absence of contemporary or timely crash facts, validation of existing countermeasures cannot be fully quantified, leaving safety advocates and practitioners to study statistical patterns and extrapolate crash indicators. Timely and comprehensive crash causation factors are needed to understand the rising trends in motorcycle crashes and to develop counter- measures in enforcement, engineering, rider education and training, licensing and public information. One of the four "urgent" recommendations of the National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety was: "Immediate action should be taken by government and industry to address the critical questions in motorcycle safety through comprehensive, in-depth studies as well as studies focused on specific topics." Motorcycle crash data are needed in order to be able to understand and quantify rider exposure and effective response in crash situations so that effective treatment can be applied. The samples below are just a few factors that could be measured by a comprehensive in- depth motorcycle crash causation research project. Such a study could answer some of the following questions: Did the rider perceive the hazard? When did the rider perceive the hazard? What pre- vented an earlier assessment? Did the rider use both brakes effectively? If not, how was the braking characterized? Did the rider swerve or make any attempt to avoid the obstacle? Was this an appropriate reaction given the circumstance? V-50

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Did alcohol, drugs or fatigue contribute to the crash? What other factors contributed to the crash (roadway conditions, weather, mechanical problems)? Was the operator wearing protective equipment (helmet and other protective apparel)? What was the extent of injury and what effect did the protective equipment have on injury reduction? Had the operator completed a rider training program? Was the operator properly licensed and/or endorsed to operate a motorcycle? In the meantime, much can be gained by understanding statistical patterns and trends in motorcycle crashes. Standard crash data elements such as time of day, age of rider, type of bike, speed, the presence of protective apparel, alcohol involvement, and licensing status provide insight into the general trends and patterns of motorcycle crashes. Highway agency officials should continue to seek information on motorcycle crashes, and use this information to craft programs designed to target problems, improve safety and educate the motoring and motorcycling public. Motorcycle Licensing Programs The National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety identified five "essential" recommendations for licensing improvement: Commission studies to ensure that licensing tests measure skills and behaviors required for crash avoidance Identify and remove barriers to obtaining a motorcycle endorsement Develop and implement programs to allow all state motorcycle safety programs to issue motorcycle endorsements immediately upon successful completion of rider training courses Enforce penalties for operating a motorcycle without a proper endorsement Encourage states and jurisdictions to provide motorcycle-specific training to license examiners administering testing for motorcyclists One "necessary" recommendation was identified: Develop an enhanced motorcycle licensing model using appropriate Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) concepts and evaluate its effectiveness. Motorcycle licensing programs and requirements for testing are in place in all states and the District of Columbia. The licensing components include a special motorcycle operator's manual, knowledge test, skills test, learner's permit and license endorsement. In many states, these licensing programs are waived for completion of a state-approved motorcycle rider training course. Most licensing agencies waive knowledge and/or skill tests for eligible applicants who hold licenses from another jurisdiction that maintain similar standards as the issuing jurisdiction. Likewise, many states waive knowledge V-51

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES and/or skills tests for applicants who have completed a motorcycle safety program from another jurisdiction. These licensing programs are necessary to measure the readiness of riders to ride safely. The operator's manual provides important information and strategies for safe riding. The knowledge test measures the understanding of that material, and the skills test quantifies the rider's readiness to venture safely onto public roads. Most states use skills tests developed by the Motorcycle Safety Foundation in cooperation with the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and NHTSA, although in 16 jurisdictions, locally designed off-street tests are used. Typically, one of the following tests is used: The Alternate Motorcycle Operator Skill Test (Alternate MOST) An off-street test comprising six individual skill tests designed to measure basic vehicle control and hazard response skills. The test features a sharp turn, normal stop, cone weave, U-turn, quick stop and obstacle avoidance maneuver. The Motorcycle Licensing Skills Test (MLST) The MLST features electronic or manual timing equipment that converts speed traveled through a timing zone to a score. The test features a straight path and sharp turn, quick stop, swerve and curve negotiation. The Motorcyclist In-Traffic Test (MIT) The MIT evaluates rider judgment in actual traffic situations. The test measures 8 to 11 riding behaviors. The examiner follows the applicant in a car and transmits instructions through a receiver carried by the applicant. In order for the skills test to be valid, it must be objectively scored. Examiners do not have to be motorcycle operators to administer these tests, but they do need to complete specialized training to learn the policies and demonstrate scoring objectivity and accuracy. Even though much has been done to establish educational resources and testing mechanisms, many riders avoid the licensing process and ride illegally. In 2003, one in four motorcycle operators (24 percent) involved in fatal crashes was operating the vehicle with an invalid license. This compares with only 12 percent of drivers of passenger vehicles in fatal crashes without a valid license (FARS, 2003). Typically these riders who are operating the vehicle with an invalid license are actually operating a vehicle "out of class," meaning that an automobile license exists but the license is not lawfully endorsed for motorcycle operation. The licensing process is a critical first step for anybody wanting to operate a motorcycle on public roads. The material in the operator's manual and the content of the knowledge and skills tests must be based on timely and accurate data and must measure the skills and strategies necessary for the safe operation of a motorcycle. Minimum standards and pass rates must be defined for these tests to be valid. Objective scoring and unbiased treatment of applicants ensure that every applicant has the best opportunity to demonstrate readiness and comply with state law. Finally, law enforcement should provide consistent enforcement for violations of "operating a vehicle out of class," including citing the operator and impounding the motorcycle. V-52

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Rider Training Programs The National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety (NAMS) identified three "essential" and three "necessary" priorities for rider education and training. The following are "essential": Expand motorcycle safety programs to accommodate all who need or seek training. Conduct uniform follow-up research into the effectiveness and impact of rider education and training. Merge rider education and training and licensing functions to form one-stop operations. The following are "necessary": Increase the number of states conducting Motorcycle Safety Program Assessments. Establish benchmarks for rider education and training effectiveness and program operation excellence. Explore the effectiveness of on-street training. Motorcycle rider education and training has been shown to provide effective treatment for motorcycle crashes, as identified in the research report, "Evaluation of the California Motorcyclist Safety Program (CMSP)" (Billheimer, 1998). This report documented the impact of the CMSP on motorcycle crashes within California using the following measures: Analyzed crash trends over the 9-year life of the program Compared accident experience of California riders with those in the rest of the United States Assessed accident rates of persons completing classes in contrast with persons not having completed classes The findings showed: Motorcycle crashes dropped 67 percent from 1986 to 1995; fatalities dropped by 69 percent during the same time period. Crashes involving riders under the age of 18 (for whom training is mandatory) dropped 88 percent from 1987 to 1995. Accident rates of untrained novice riders were more than double the rates of their trained counterparts for at least 6 months after training. Motorcycle rider education and training enjoys the broad support of industry, government and users. In fact, groups such as ABATE ("A Brotherhood Against Totalitarian Enactments," "A Brotherhood Aimed Toward Education," or "American Bikers Aimed Toward Education") have been among the most active supporters. This group of motorcyclists believes that education and training are the most effective ways to reduce motorcycle crashes, injuries and fatalities. They share the common mission to "promote motorcycle awareness, education, V-53

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES safety and liberty through community involvement and legislative action." For more information about this group, visit their website at: http://www.abateoforegon.net/. Forty-seven states support self-funded motorcycle safety and rider training programs. Funding is typically derived from fees on motorcycle endorsements and/or registrations. Some jurisdictions rely heavily on course fees. Most jurisdictions offer rider training programs created and supported by the Motorcycle Safety Foundation and typically include training for beginning and experienced riders and instructor training programs. Approximately three million riders have completed rider training since 1973, with 250,000 riders passing through a training program each year since 2000. Some states require training for riders under the ages of 16, 18, or 21. Tuition nationwide runs from free to $350 for the beginning or experienced course (SMSA, 2003). The National Association of State Motorcycle Safety Administrators (SMSA) maintains an extensive survey resource detailing state-by-state information on program infrastructure, contacts and services. The website is http://www.qandapro.com/report/report.php (username: survey, password: visitor). Unfortunately, many of the jurisdictions that offer and support rider training programs cannot meet the increasing demand for courses. Many potential students report wait times for training from 3 months to as much as 1 year. Riders are opting out of the training process completely because they cannot find a training course nearby or within a reasonable period of time. Motorcycle safety programs are unable to identify and train enough instructors to meet the growing demand. Sites, personnel and equipment are in short supply. Funding in many jurisdictions is inadequate to meet this growing demand. Clearly, many state and local motorcycle safety programs need to forecast demand, prepare strategic plans for meeting the growing need for training, and implement performance measures to evaluate effectiveness of effort and expense. Nationally, three groups have the influence to effect change in rider training programs, delivery and evaluation: the Motorcycle Safety Foundation, the National Association of State Motorcycle Safety Administrators (SMSA), and NHTSA through the Safety Countermeasures Division and state offices of highway safety. Close partners include the Motorcycle Riders' Foundation (MRF) and the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA). These groups often, but not always, cooperate on initiatives to strengthen motorcycle safety and rider training programs. NHTSA supports a "State Motorcycle Safety Program Assessment," a technical assistance tool offered to states that allow management to review the motorcycle safety program, note the program's strengths and accomplishments, and note where improvements can be made. The assessment can be used as a management tool for planning purposes and for making decisions about how best to use available resources. The Motorcycle Safety Program Assessment process provides an organized approach for meeting these objectives. The Motorcycle Safety Program Assessment is a cooperative effort among NHTSA, the state motorcycle program office, the state highway safety office, and other agencies or offices, such as the Department of Motor Vehicles, Department of Public Safety, Department of Transportation, and/or Department of Education, which contribute to the state's motorcycle V-54

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES safety program efforts. The Motorcycle Safety Program Assessment follows the format and procedures utilized by other highway safety and emergency medical services program assessments. The Motorcycle Safety Program Assessment examines the following components of a comprehensive motorcycle safety program: Program management Motorcycle personal protective equipment Motorcycle operator licensing Motorcycle rider education and training Motorcycle operation under the influence of alcohol or other drugs Legislation and regulations Law enforcement Highway engineering Motorcycle conspicuity and motorist awareness programs Communication program Program evaluation and data For more information, see NHTSA's Uniform Guidelines for State Highway Safety Programs: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/nhtsa/whatsup/tea21/tea21programs/pages/ MotorcyclePDF.pdf. The demand for training has borne witness to the emergence of industry training programs. With the assistance of the Motorcycle Safety Foundation, Harley-Davidson has developed and continues to support a network of "Rider's Edge" courses that are offered and run through local dealerships. Students register at the dealership, complete classroom training at the dealership, and ride new Buell Blast motorcycles for the on-cycle portion of the training. It is expected that motorcycle sales will continue to rise as the "baby boomer" generation continues to exercise financial freedom. In addition, the effect of increasing fuel costs and increased traffic congestion may well be the launching point for resurgence in popularity of motorcycles. Motorcycle rider education and training programs need to remain viable, responsive and strong to keep quality rider training accessible and affordable to all who are interested in riding or improving skills and safety. The effective cure for this strategy is to support a means and mechanism for riders to complete training and licensing. In those states where licensing tests are waived for course graduates, the completion of training resolves both education and licensing issues (once the rider completes the endorsement application and payment process). Most jurisdictions allow a license testing waiver for the beginning course, but several jurisdictions also allow testing waivers for intermediate and/or experienced rider training. V-55

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-37 Strategy Attributes for Increasing Awareness of the Causes of Crashes Due to Unlicensed or Untrained Motorcycle Riders Technical Attributes Target This strategy targets the transportation community: engineering, enforcement, safety and licensing officials responsible for data analysis and program countermeasures. The motorcycle safety leaders should be involved. Expected Effectiveness The success of this strategy depends on the extent to which those responsible for implementing these countermeasures understand the value of reviewing data to identify motorcycle crash causation factors, especially rider training and licensing status. It is advisable to meet with the personnel involved in transportation and motorcycle safety programs to fully understand the reasons for this approach (i.e., the over-representation of unlicensed and untrained riders in motorcycle crashes, particularly in a highway agency's respective jurisdiction). The motorcycle safety, transportation safety, law enforcement and judicial communities should be involved to help craft strategies, implement solutions and identify and enforce violations. Motorcycle safety advisory and advocacy groups should be enlisted to provide key support and leadership to the motorcycling community. If over-the-road exposure data is collected to determine the number of riders who are operating a motorcycle without a proper license or endorsement and without proper training, the magnitude of the risk of being in a crash can be determined (i.e., odds ratio). Keys to Success Keys to success include: Data collection and analysis Broadening the base of support by engaging the community of key stakeholders Training and coordinating with law enforcement and judiciary to enforce licensing and/or training laws Public awareness and effective use of information sources Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the state's motorcycle safety program through a NHTSA Assessment or other impartial evaluation Coordinating with the rider training community to expand course offerings, promote the availability of training, and train more riders. Communicating with trained riders about the need to complete the endorsement process. The best way to implement this strategy is to persuade riders to complete training. In many states, the licensing tests are waived for course graduates. Potential Difficulties A potential difficulty is achieving cooperation and coordination of law enforcement and judiciary to target motorcyclists riding unlicensed/unendorsed or without training, when mandatory. The availability of rider training opportunities can be a problem. The ability to develop a system that will permit data linkage between crash data records and rider training or rider licensing may present a challenge. V-56

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-37 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Increasing Awareness of the Causes of Crashes Due to Unlicensed or Untrained Motorcycle Riders Appropriate Measures Reliable data are needed for both program operation and program evaluation. and Data The representation of unendorsed/unlicensed and/or untrained riders in motorcycle crash data should be identified. Data on crash involvement of this demographic should be monitored and measured against national motorcycle crash data. Specific measures should include: Number of motorcycle crashes Crash type comparison--single-vehicle versus multi-vehicle Representation of unlicensed/unendorsed riders Time of crash--percentage daytime versus nighttime Baseline comparison of above indicators to other vehicle types Baseline comparison of above indicators to federal findings Program countermeasures, such as public information and education programs, should include effectiveness measures. Police and court systems should track citations and convictions for operating a motorcycle "out of class" (i.e., without proper endorsement) or without proper training credentials. The highway agency's FARS specialist should track and publish statewide annual motorcycle crash statistics. State motorcycle safety officials should track training figures within the state and develop a method by which training information could be linked with crash data records to form a truly comprehensive motorcycle data system. A Motorcycle Safety Program Assessment will identify program strengths and areas in need of improvement. Countermeasures can be developed and evaluated. Associated Needs The media play a crucial role in information dissemination. Special public information and education campaigns may be appropriate supplements to an improvement program. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Providing accurate crash and/or incident information requires cooperation among Institutional and public safety agencies that possess the data. Alliances with key stakeholders-- Policy Issues including transportation and motorcycle safety specialists, enforcement, licensing, motorcycle users and activists--can produce goodwill and support for transportation safety initiatives. The motorcycle community is a tremendous resource. Leaders are very concerned about motorcycle safety and will go to great lengths to support comprehensive motorcycle safety measures. These partnerships are essential to begin to (a) understand the problems motor cyclists face and (b) provide a mechanism to convey information between researchers, policy makers and the state leaders and activists within the motorcycling community. State law should be researched to understand the penalties for operating a vehicle "out of class" or without appropriate training credentials. State motorcycle safety program personnel need to analyze program strengths and responsiveness to constituent demand. Steps should be taken to strengthen the program infrastructure if training frequency is determined to be inadequate. V-57

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-37 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Increasing Awareness of the Causes of Crashes Due to Unlicensed or Untrained Motorcycle Riders Issues Affecting A thorough data analysis, review, discussion, meeting with key stakeholders, and Implementation Time adoption process may take several months. Additional data and/or data linkages may need to be obtained and developed. Depending on the agency practices, it may take more time to adopt a comprehensive plan and implement this strategy. It is advisable that at least 6 months be allowed to formulate and implement this strategic plan. Costs Involved Costs associated with this strategy include: Personnel time to research, coordinate with key stakeholders, implement and evaluate this strategy. Public information and education campaign and/or resources targeting the group over-represented in crashes involving unlicensed/endorsed or untrained riders. Additional classes, if required. This may take legislation or a rule change to increase funding (statute or course tuition). Conduct of a State Motorcycle Program Assessment. Training and Other Motorcycle safety program personnel can benefit from training in how best to Personnel Needs forecast future demand and how to improve their training infrastructure to meet current or future demand. Police should be trained to recognize the characteristics of unlicensed or unendorsed operators and to uniformly enforce licensing laws. Legislative Needs Motorcycle safety programs are funded through fees on endorsements or registrations. This rate may need to be increased to meet future demand. Other Key Attributes None identified. EXHIBIT V-38 Motorcycle Safety Foundation Educational Materials V-58

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently EXHIBIT V-39 Implementing This Strategy SMSA's Safety Workshop Publication The Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF) has developed training and licensing PSAs for print and web applications in a variety of sizes and formats and will provide them at no cost to the state. Contact the MSF for more information. The TEAM OREGON Motorcycle Safety Program maintains a listserv for motorcycle patrol officers in Oregon. More than 100 officers are enrolled. The service is used to provide educational and safety information and resources to the Oregon motor officer community and has targeted unendorsed and untrained rider issues in the past. The Maryland Motor Vehicles Administration (MVA) has linked data from different sources to track motorcycle crashes, violations, injury reports and compliance with licensing regulations. Linking data from CODES, vehicle registration, operator licensing and rider training records, MVA can begin to evaluate and understand violation and crash trends and the effects of training and licensing on those crashes and violations. For more information, contact the Maryland Motorcycle Safety Program: www.motor cyclesafety@mdot.state.md.us. The National Association of State Motorcycle Safety Administrators (SMSA) provided professional development and resources for members to forecast program growth at the 2002 National Conference in Boise, Idaho. The workshop entitled, "Forecasting the Future: A Manager's Guide to Program Health and Sustainability" was prepared and delivered by the TEAM OREGON Motorcycle Safety Program at Oregon State University. A CD complemented the presentation and provided tools to calculate the number of instructors needed to meet the anticipated demand and the number of course offerings required to meet local, regional and state demand. Many states were found to be maintaining a consistent number of instructors and sites while the demand for student training was increasing. The training and CD identify the potential problems with continuing that strategy. Many state managers have reported that the training and resources have been successfully applied to develop an improved business plan and funding appropriation. For information, contact TEAM OREGON: http://teamoregon. orst.edu. Several states have completed a Motorcycle Safety Program Assessment, including Washington, Indiana, Oklahoma, Ohio, Delaware, Missouri, West Virginia, Florida and Hawaii. The following resources were created and produced by Oregon Department of Transportation (left) and the Minnesota Motorcycle Safety Program (right) to promote motorcycle safety and rider training. V-59

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-40 Educational Materials Produced by Oregon Department of Transportation (left) and Minnesota Motorcycle Safety Program (right) Strategy 11.1 C2--Ensure That Licensing and Rider Training Programs Adequately Teach and Measure Skills and Behaviors Required for Crash Avoidance (T) General Description This strategy is an "essential" recommendation of the National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety (NAMS). As described in Strategy 11.1 C1, motorcycle licensing and training programs are well established in most states. Most licensing and rider training programs use curriculum and materials designed and supported by the Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF). The MSF is responsible for a series of Cycle Safety Information (CSI) reports, including: (1) annual licensing procedures and standards, (2) annual training statistics on a state-by-state basis, and (3) annual crash statistics. These are excellent resources and may be downloaded at http://www.msf-usa.org/ (click on the "Library" section). Materials used in rider training and licensing are updated infrequently. Instructor and examiner training often fail to address current local/statewide crash causation issues. Unfortunately, even when those issues are identified, the task of integrating new motorcycle research findings into training and licensing programs is not thoroughly applied. Often, years will pass with no oversight or assurances that state/regional licensing and education programs are measuring the skills and behaviors required for crash avoidance. Many licensing and education programs are based on the Hurt Study (Hurt et al., 1981). While changes in licensing programs have been made since the Hurt Study, the purpose of many of the changes has been to accommodate larger motorcycles in slow speed exercises. V-60

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Subtle changes have been made in technical treatment of skills and strategies in training or licensing. New training curricula continue to address the problems identified in the Hurt Study, which are believed to remain problems today. Realistically, this may or may not be true. For example, the Hurt Study identified that 92 percent of riders involved in crashes were self-trained. Thirty years later, this may have changed. Most riders from the Hurt Study showed significant deficiencies in performing emergency braking and evasive maneuvers. In most multiple-vehicle crashes today, the operator of the other vehicle is at fault for violating the motorcyclist's right-of-way. While multiple-vehicle crashes represent 54 percent of total crashes (FARS, 2003), it is unknown whether the driver of the other vehicle remains culpable for the crash causation or if other characteristics are present. Single- vehicle crashes constitute 46 percent of all fatal crashes (FARS, 2003), but the cause of these crashes is largely unknown. Training and licensing practices should be based on current research and best practices, as prescribed in two NAMS recommendations: Conduct follow-up research into the effectiveness and impact of rider education and training. Establish benchmarks for rider education and training effectiveness and program operation excellence. Highway agency safety personnel should research current motorcycle crash statistics to identify the crash factors facing riders in that jurisdiction and compare those findings with current testing and education practices. Those findings should be shared with groups responsible for national guidelines--MSF and the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA)--in a collaborative effort to improve safety. Changes in training or licensing should be communicated to the training and licensing communities through periodic instructor and examiner in-service training programs. EXHIBIT V-41 Strategy Attributes for Ensuring That Licensing and Rider Training Programs Adequately Teach and Measure Skills and Behaviors Required for Crash Avoidance Technical Attributes Target The target of this strategy is state agencies with regulatory oversight of motorcycle operator licensing and motorcycle rider training (public and private). Expected Effectiveness No formal evaluation has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of this strategy at reducing motorcycle fatalities. Keys to Success The key to success of this strategy is comparing crash experience with training and licensing treatments and measures. It is important to bring together stakeholders-- licensing officials, rider education and training providers and advocacy and user groups--to implement this strategy as a unified team. Potential Difficulties The licensing and training programs may resist changes, once identified. Appropriate Measures Process measures could include the existence of a coordinated system, number of and Data meetings held, number of records analyzed, comparison of crash factors against treatment of those skills, issues or strategies in training/testing, comparison of those factors to national data, etc. V-61

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-41 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Ensuring That Licensing and Rider Training Programs Adequately Teach and Measure Skills and Behaviors Required for Crash Avoidance Crashes need to be analyzed to determine the effectiveness of training/licensing in crash avoidance and whether that skill or strategy was appropriately applied for the crash situation. Associated Needs The joint involvement of different disciplines in determining the underlying contributing crash factors and then suggesting and implementing corrective action is critical. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Engineering, licensing, and motorcycle safety personnel often view each other Institutional and as distinct and autonomous entities whose work does not overlap. This strategy Policy Issues requires a team effort between agencies and with the motorcycle training community. Because these personnel are from separate agencies, institutional issues may have to be overcome in order to facilitate cooperation. Issues Affecting The stakeholder team will require time to collect and analyze the data and Implementation Time compare it with licensing tests and training measures. Data linkages may be necessary between crash data, licensing, and training information. The scope of the effort, the nature of the changes, and the cooperation of stakeholders will all determine the time from data collection to program implementation. This will vary widely. Costs Involved Costs can vary widely, depending on the scope of effort and the specific actions being taken, which can be as little as suggesting change in a few questions of the licensing knowledge test to proposing major revision of the rider training manual. The author or provider should complete the task per DOT specification. Analysis, coordination with other groups, and oversight costs should be considered. Training and Other Training and licensing personnel may need to complete refresher training to align Personnel Needs with current rider safety needs. Operator's manuals and training guides may also need to be updated and/or customized to meet the needs of the agency. Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes None identified. Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing This Strategy The Oregon Department of Transportation has implemented this strategy. When statewide data indicated that most riders were crashing in curves, the department instructed the TEAM OREGON Motorcycle Safety Program to evaluate the training curriculum against this and other local safety measures. A field test was conducted. New rider training and educational treatments were developed and a new curriculum was adopted. The new program emphasizes safe cornering theory, technique and performance. This program was also compared with national benchmarks to assure quality and accuracy. Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing: A Review of Programs and Practices (Baer et al., 2005a) provides a comparison of trends in rider education and motorcycle operator licensing across V-62

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report presents state-by-state data on all aspects of rider education and licensing. NHTSA released a follow-up report in 2005 that details promising practices in rider education and motorcycle operator licensing (Baer et al., 2005b). Strategy 11.1 C3--Identify and Remove Barriers to Obtaining a Motorcycle Endorsement (T) General Description This strategy is a NAMS "essential." It is important to identify and remove barriers to obtaining a motorcycle endorsement. It has been established that, in 2001, one in four motorcycle operators (25 percent) involved in fatal crashes was operating the vehicle with an invalid license (FARS, 2002). It is unknown how many riders are currently operating a motorcycle without proper licensure. The ability to compare registered cycle owners to endorsed operators is complicated in many states due to incompatible licensing and registration database systems. In some states, it is also not possible to quantify the number of unqualified motorcycle riders that are involved in crashes, simply because the motorcycle license endorsement is not reported on the crash reporting form. Qualifying for a motorcycle endorsement indicates the rider has met minimum standards for knowledge, skill and safety, and is a requirement in all states. It is the skills test, more than the knowledge test, that complicates compliance: The testing times are inconvenient and not immediate. Appointments are required and often the wait time is several weeks or months. Some jurisdictions cancel the testing for rain. This starts the scheduling process all over. The rider has to transport their personal motorcycle to the testing site. For those who are riding on a permit, another person has to accompany him/her on another motorcycle. The test intimidates some riders. Common excuses are: "My bike won't turn that tight." "My bike won't ride that slow." "My bike is too big." "What do they (the examiners) know about riding a motorcycle?" The fear of failure is commonly present, and when a rider fails, the testing cycle starts over again--appointments, delivery, testing and fear of failure. The licensing system in many states allows riders to renew permits year after year, pro- viding no incentive to complete the endorsement process. Law enforcement may not always enforce the violation of riding without an endorsement. Even when a rider is stopped and cited, in some cases they are allowed to ride away. The laws for operating a vehicle out of class should be consistently applied for all vehicles. In some jurisdictions, operators caught driving or riding without proper licensing credentials have their vehicles impounded. Many licensing jurisdictions waive skills and knowledge testing for graduates of basic rider training. This has proven to be a training incentive. The advantages are many: Small, lightweight training motorcycles are typically provided for training and testing. The training builds skill, develops strategy, and improves knowledge. V-63

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Knowledge and skill testing are included in the training program. To successfully complete the course, the rider must pass both a knowledge and a skills test. With the completion certificate in hand, the graduate applicant simply visits the licensing office to present the certificate and have his/her license endorsed for motorcycle operation, no appointment, no rain-out, no concern about getting a bike to the licensing office, and no threat about possibly failing the skills test and having to repeat the process. The training and licensing partnership is the most effective means to prepare a motorcyclist to venture onto public roads safely and legally. However, it is unknown how many course graduates actually complete the last step of visiting the licensing office to acquire the "M" endorsement. This last step could be eliminated by allowing rider training providers to issue temporary endorsement certificates to eligible students. Once the licensing department receives training reports, it could mail a replacement "sticker" or other form of authorization that the applicant could adhere to his or her driver's license. Tight security, quality assurance and compliance measures would have to be established. The advantage of this solution is that the thousands of people completing rider training would not have to also visit local licensing offices. The licensing department would benefit, as would the students. Compliance with licensing of the training population should increase. The state of Pennsylvania has such an arrangement: http://www.dmv.state.pa.us/faq/faq-mcpermit.shtml. Finally, licensing reciprocity between state-to-state licensing programs may streamline operations and eliminate unnecessary testing. Many states currently recognize other states' licensing standards and do not require legally licensed out-of-state applicants to complete the battery of operator licensing tests to qualify for a driver's license and motorcycle endorsement. Another form of reciprocity is for state licensing agencies that currently reward rider training graduates with an endorsement to extend that reward to out-of-state applicants who submit appropriate training credentials recognized by the host state. Both of these initiatives will likely reduce traffic at licensing offices and should improve compliance with state licensing laws. For more information on motorcyclist licensing elements in the United States, see Strategy 11.1 C1. Another related strategy that addresses licensing of motor vehicle drivers can be found in NCHRP Report 500, Volume 2, "A Guide for Addressing Collisions Involving Unlicensed Drivers and Drivers with Suspended or Revoked Licenses." EXHIBIT V-42 Strategy Attributes for Identifying and Removing Barriers to Obtaining a Motorcycle Endorsement Technical Attributes Target The target of this strategy is unendorsed motorcyclists. Expected Effectiveness This strategy has been shown to be effective in increasing the number of endorsed riders. In Minnesota, over a 4-year demonstration period, 3,320 riders completed the endorsement process during special "evening hours" programs. While it has been shown that this strategy increases the number of riders who complete the endorsement process, no formal evaluations have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of this strategy in reducing the number of motorcycle crashes or fatalities. V-64

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-42 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Identifying and Removing Barriers to Obtaining a Motorcycle Endorsement Keys to Success This strategy requires an administrative effort, and the success is dependent on the following: Defining the scope of the problem. A representative sample of vehicle licensing and driving records should be compared to determine how many of the people owning motorcycles are not legally eligible to operate them. Identifying stakeholders and coordinating effort. Key stakeholders include the motorcycling groups and organizations, the Motorcycle Safety Advisory Committee, transportation and/or motorcycle safety specialists, licensing officials, and law enforcement. Developing a plan. The communities with the greatest population of unendorsed riders should be identified and targeted. If possible, the community of riders who lack licensing credentials to ride motorcycles should be informed of the motorcycle licensing requirements and encouraged to comply with state law. This is the most effective targeting means, for it puts the violators "on notice." Finally, highway agencies should partner with the licensing and motorcycle safety program to offer weekend or evening testing hours. Promoting the benefit of proper endorsement through public information and education. Highway agencies should coordinate with the media and information sources to promote this strategy. Obtaining enforcement and judicial support. This support is crucial, especially in the targeted communities. Potential Difficulties Obtaining cooperation from the licensing authority to provide after-hours testing may be problematic. Likewise, the state/region may not allow third-party testing, thereby eliminating outside sources (e.g., the rider training community) from assisting with this strategy. Appropriate Measures To identify the scope of the problem, local/regional data must be compiled. It is and Data important to know how many of the state's or region's motorcyclists are riding without an endorsement. This forms the baseline for future evaluation of the program's impact. Once the program is implemented, data should be compiled on the number and location of testing sites, the number of people participating, and how those numbers compare with past years. The number of applicants who completed the endorsement process during regular business hours over the same time period should be tracked, including how many had testing waived for successful completion of rider training. Coordination with rider training providers is advised to identify and track those who complete rider training successfully to learn how many complete the endorsement process. Coordination with law enforcement is recommended to track the number of violators identified during the program period and track the rate of compliance. V-65

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-42 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Identifying and Removing Barriers to Obtaining a Motorcycle Endorsement Associated Needs The motorcycling community should know that this program is going into effect. Highway agencies should communicate directly with that population by developing promotional materials and circulating them to dealers, clubs, and organizations, and at rallies and events. The support of the Motorcycle Advisory Committee and advocacy groups should be enlisted to further spread the word. Information regarding the number of riders who are involved in a crash, and do not have the proper qualifications, is essential to understanding the scope of the problem within a given region. If such information is not currently reported on the crash data forms, then appropriate procedures should be initiated to update the highway agency crash reporting forms to include such information. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, The goal of this strategy is to get motorcycle riders properly licensed or endorsed. Institutional and The involvement of enforcement, judicial, licensing, motorcycle/transportation Policy Issues safety and data personnel is required. Engaging the involvement of key stake holders in the motorcycling community is important to gain consensus and cooperation. Some courts employ a "deferred judgment" approach, whereby the court gives the violator limited time to obtain proper licensure. If proper licensure is obtained, no further court action is taken. The court system needs to be supportive of whatever enforcement and licensing actions are taken. The licensing agency needs to make license status data available. Issues Affecting The time required to implement this strategy should be brief. This strategy Implementation Time should be timed to coincide with the warmer months and longer days of the "riding season." Costs Involved Costs involved should be minimal if existing personnel are assigned. There are some expenses for data runs and promotional pieces. There will be additional costs if it is necessary to increase law enforcement beyond existing resources. Training and Other No special training should be required. Officers already check license status of Personnel Needs violators. They just need to be reminded to inspect a motorcyclist's license for the appropriate designation to indicate compliance with state licensing laws. Legislative Needs No legislation is required to launch this strategy. However, it is advisable to review the motorcycle permit renewal policy to determine if that policy provides a long-term mechanism for avoiding the endorsement process. If so, the allowable time for a permit should be limited. Other Key Attributes None identified. V-66

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing This Strategy The Minnesota Motorcycle Safety Program conducted the Enhanced Motorcycle Licensing Project, initiated in 1995 with NHTSA Section 403 assistance. The goal of the project was to increase the number of safe motorcycle operators by developing a program targeting unendorsed motorcycle operators and creating a program that simplifies the endorsement process and eliminates disincentives for compliance. The report identified the following disincentives: Motorcycle permits cost $2.50 and are renewable for $1.00, while the endorsement fee is $16 Driver exam stations are overcrowded, forcing an endorsement applicant to schedule the skills test months in advance Skills tests were often postponed due to rain The disincentives were removed. Extended evening motorcycle testing hours were provided at select exam stations throughout the state. A strong public information and media effort advertised the evening hours, and the state motorcycle safety program made available state- owned training motorcycles for endorsement applicants to use. An average of 800 motorcycle operators took advantage of the opportunity in each of the first 3 years of the program, with 920 operators participating in the last year, 1998. When polled, 88.5 percent of the respondents reported that evening hours were an important incentive; 33 percent disclosed that they would not have taken the skills test without evening hours. Visit http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/outreach/safedige/Winter1999/n5-128.html. The state of Maryland formed a Motorcycle Safety Task Force comprising NHTSA Region 3, Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA), the Maryland Highway Safety Office (MHSO), the National Study Center, State Police and ABATE of Maryland. The purpose of the task force was to protect motorcyclists by promoting: Accurate collection of information Additional research Broader outreach effort Increased funding available Development of a long-term plan that can be evaluated The accomplishments of a diverse group such as this are far greater than individual approaches. This Task Force succeeded in: Gathering and linking information to identify the problem--training, licensing, registra- tion, crash reports, hospital reports, crash reconstruction, citations, etc. Identifying unlicensed or improperly licensed operators as a significant problem in crashes Coordinating roll call training for police departments on investigating motorcycle crashes--evidence and correct information Inspecting helmets after a crash V-67