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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-43 Pilot testing motorcycle crash reconstruction MSF's Licensing PSA Class M (Motorcycle) licensing effort included comparing vehicle registration data with licensing data to identify those who owned motorcycles but were not endorsed. The find- ings showed 14 percent of the state's riders lacked the M endorsement. A letter was sent to these individuals reminding them of that legal requirement. As a result, 1,700 people (a response rate of 17 percent) got an M license. After-hours testing was conducted in which 300 individuals participated. The Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF) supports motorcycle licensing programs and has developed licensing PSAs for print and web applications in a variety of sizes and formats and will provide them at no cost to the state. Contact the MSF for more information. Objective 11.1 D--Reduce the Number of Motorcycle Crashes by Increasing the Visibility of Motorcyclists Strategy 11.1 D1--Increase the Awareness of the Benefit of High-Visibility Clothing (E) General Description A common complaint of many motorcyclists is that passenger car drivers often do not see them and, as a result, violate the motorcyclists' right-of-way. This issue was addressed in the Hurt Study (Hurt et al., 1981) as well, which reported many passenger car drivers as saying "I didn't see him" or "He came out of nowhere." The Hurt Study also found that "the failure of motorists to detect and recognize motorcycles in traffic is the predominating cause of motorcycle accidents." Hurt identified that riders who wore camouflage or other hard-to-see apparel were over-represented in right-of-way crashes, suggesting that conspicuity also plays a role in crash avoidance. Other research also suggests that motorcycle conspicuity is a contributing factor in motorcycle-automobile collisions (Wells et al., 2004). The National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety (NHTSA, 2000) reports: One of the easiest and most effective ways for a motorcyclist to be seen by other motorists is by wearing brightly colored, upper-torso clothing and/or retro-reflective material. However, only minorities of motorcyclists choose such brightly colored apparel, whether for fashion or other reasons. The predominant color of motorcycle apparel is black: black leather jackets, black gloves and boots, and black helmets. NAMS reports that more than one-half of the motorcycle helmets sold in the United States are black. The problem with black is that it is inconspicuous in the day and, in the absence of any retro-reflective material, invisible at night or in low-light V-68

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES conditions. While motorists must be responsible for actively looking for motorcyclists, it is incumbent upon motorcyclists to recognize how conspicuity issues affect their safety and to prepare accordingly. According to the New Zealand study, Motorcycle Rider Conspicuity and Crash Related Injury: Case-Controlled Study, (Wells et al., 2004): Riders wearing any reflective or fluorescent clothing had a 37 percent lower risk of being in a crash when compared to riders who did not wear reflective or fluorescent clothing. Compared with wearing a black helmet, use of a white helmet was associated with a 24 percent lower risk of being in a crash. Selfreported use of a light-colored helmet versus a dark-colored helmet was associated with a 19 percent lower risk of being in a crash. Increased awareness of this issue can occur at the state level by integrating this information into driver training programs--drivers can be made more aware of the motorcycle and the motorcycle rider. Similarly, motorcycle rider training programs can emphasize the concept of motorcycle conspicuity. Rider training programs should promote conspicuity and provide specific examples of how riders can improve their visibility to surrounding traffic. Motorcyclists can immediately and inexpensively improve conspicuity, and thus their safety, by wearing retro-reflective material on their clothes and helmets. Retro-reflective vests are especially effective at increasing visibility at night, and come in a variety of colors to complement the rider's apparel. Highway agencies should partner with the motorcycling community and the state's motorcycle safety authority to implement this strategy through education, information and awareness. EXHIBIT V-44 Strategy Attributes for Increasing the Awareness of the Benefit of High-Visibility Clothing Technical Attributes Target The targets of this strategy are motorcycle riders and passengers, as well as the motorcycle-safety and rider-training community. Expected Effectiveness The effectiveness of increasing the awareness of the benefits of conspicuous clothing has not been satisfactorily quantified. Keys to Success The key to success includes accurately identifying the scope of the crash problem that may be effectively treated with a public education campaign. A targeted motorist awareness campaign can add to the effectiveness of the strategy, especially in those states with a high incidence of multiple-vehicle crashes involving motorcycles (see Appendix 2). Motorcyclists may be effectively reached at rallies and similar events. It is important to involve the motorcycle rider and safety community in the development and distribution of the material used for this strategy. It may be useful to contact producers of motorcycles and motorcycle gear to identify creative ways of improving visibility (e.g., through creating attractive retro-reflective materials), and then market these to the community. V-69

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-44 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Increasing the Awareness of the Benefit of High-Visibility Clothing Potential Difficulties A potential difficulty with this strategy is accurately targeting the appropriate group of motorcyclists. That is, it may be difficult for highway agencies, and the group of stakeholders with which they are working, to identify where motorcyclists congregate and can be expected to view the public information material. Another potential difficulty is effecting change in a long-established culture. Riders may be very reluctant to put aside the traditional black leather in favor of high-visibility treatments. Appropriate Measures Depending on the scope of effort, process measures could include the existence of and Data a coordinated system, number of meetings held, number and type of materials produced, and number of postings and contacts made. Roadside evaluations should be conducted before and after the campaign to measure the campaign effectiveness in increased use of protective apparel. Associated Needs A media and information campaign would make riders aware of the benefits of high-visibility clothing. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Central to the success of any motorcycle safety initiative is to form alliances with Institutional and key stakeholders in transportation and motorcycle safety, licensing, enforcement Policy Issues and the motorcycle community. Many state governments support a Motorcycle Safety Advisory Committee (MSAC) through statute or rule. Often, these committees are comprised of motorcycle leaders, authorities and activists from across the state, and include representatives from State Police, DMV, Transportation Safety and the state's motorcycle safety program. Partnering with MSAC groups is essential to begin to (a) understand the problems motorcyclists face and (b) provide a mechanism to convey information between researchers, policy makers and the state leaders and activists within the motorcycling community. Broadening organizational involvement to include the private sector, such as those that produce motorcycles and motorcycle-rider gear may add a needed dimension to the effectiveness of the strategy, through effective marketing. Issues Affecting A public awareness campaign aimed at motorcyclists should be targeted around Implementation Time the prime riding season, when motorcyclists are most likely to be congregating at locations where the public awareness material is distributed (e.g., riding events, etc.). Public awareness campaigns are most effective when timed to coincide with the riding season. This will entail highway agencies beginning to work on this strategy well in advance of the prime riding season, in order to have the public awareness campaign ready. Costs Involved Costs vary depending on the size of the campaign. Training and Other Increasing the awareness of the benefit of high-visibility clothing does not require Personnel Needs training or additional agency personnel, but it does require awareness of the conspicuity issues, a priority to address conspicuity issues, and a willingness to partner with key stakeholders to begin the process of effecting change. Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes Public education and information activities complement this strategy. Educational materials may be required to inform those implementing this strategy of effective treatment methods. V-70

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-45 Public Service Announcements for Appropriate Cycling Clothing Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing This Strategy In Exhibit V-45, the sample on the left from the TEAM OREGON Basic Rider Training Rider's Guide provides information on the characteristics of good riding gear, including conspicuity treatments. The Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF) has developed training and licensing PSAs for print and web applications in a variety of sizes and formats and will provide them at no cost to the state. See the "Street Wise" sample in Exhibit V-45 on the right. Contact the MSF for more information. The Gold Wing Road Riders Association (GWRRA) has created a publication to educate members on ways to improve conspicuity. For more information, visit: http://www. gwrra-mi.org/MAD/conspicuity.pdf. Strategy 11.1 D2--Identify and Promote Rider Visibility-Enhancement Methods and Technology (T) General Description Motorcyclists who are inconspicuous are over-represented in crashes (Wells et al., 2004). Depending on the trends and patterns of crash data, conspicuity may be a significant factor in accident causation. This strategy promotes motorcyclist safety through visibility- enhancing methods and technology. The Hurt Study (Hurt et al., 1981) found that "the failure of motorists to detect and recognize motorcycles in traffic is the predominating cause of motorcycle accidents." The study also identified intersections as the most likely place for crashes to occur and determined that the conspicuity of the motorcycle is a critical factor in these crashes. Accident involvement was significantly reduced by the use of motorcycle headlights during the day and conspicuity (e.g., light/bright colors) of the motorcycle and rider frontal surfaces. The National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety, developed by NHTSA, identified a variety of recognized tactics to make motorcycles and riders more conspicuous, including V-71

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES lighting, surface color and size, and rider traffic strategy (NHTSA, 2000). Lighting factors include: Headlights that automatically illuminate when the motorcycle is started. This technology has been featured on most motorcycles since 1979. Twenty-three states have laws requir- ing the use of daytime headlights for motorcycles (Motorcycle Industry Council, 2000). It is estimated that 86 percent of motorcycles on the road have their headlight on during the daytime (Turner and Hagelin, 2000). Auxiliary headlights, such as those found on large cruiser style motorcycles, are useful for increasing frontal visibility. Auxiliary LED brake lights that flash while the brakes are applied provide extra warning to following traffic. Unfortunately, these devices are not legal in all states because some states prohibit the use of flashing red lights on anything but emergency vehicles. A strong case can be made for legislation to legalize these safety devices. Auxiliary LED wireless brake lights can be installed on helmets and saddlebags. Headlight modulators are available, but not widely used. These devices cause the motor- cycle headlight to pulse at 240 cycles per minute (plus/minus 40). Headlight modulators are permitted in all 50 states (FMVSS 108). Some modern motorcycles are equipped with position lamps that provide full-time illu- mination of the front turn signals. Aftermarket products are available that accomplish the same objective. Some devices illuminate the rear turn signals as red brake lights when brakes are applied. The position of a motorcycle within the lane is a critical visibility factor. It is essential that motorcyclists place themselves in clear view of surrounding traffic. Motorcyclists that hide in traffic place themselves at greater risk of right-of-way violations. Rider training programs promote effective lane positioning to account for visibility, lane protection, roadway hazard detection, space cushion, following distance and escape path. Highway agencies should promote measures to improve motorcycle conspicuity by supporting public information and education programs and by partnering with the rider training community to advocate for rider education, training, and safety. Increasing the use of daytime headlights and other conspicuity-enhancing measures are inexpensive and valuable interventions. States that do not currently require the use of daytime headlights for motorcycles may consider enacting such a law. States in which auxiliary LED lights are not legal may consider not only making them legal but requiring them. EXHIBIT V-46 Strategy Attributes for Identifying and Promoting Visibility-Enhancement Methods and Technology Technical Attributes Target The target of this strategy is motorcycle riders and passengers, as well as the motorcycle safety and rider training community. Expected Effectiveness The effectiveness of increasing the awareness of the benefits of visibility methods has not been satisfactorily quantified. V-72

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-46 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Identifying and Promoting Visibility-Enhancement Methods and Technology Keys to Success The key to success is to involve the motorcycle rider and safety community in the research, development and distribution of information regarding this strategy. Identify state laws that prohibit visibility-enhancing methods, and work to change the laws. It may be useful to contact producers of motorcycles and motorcycle wear to identify creative ways of improving visibility (e.g., through creating attractive retro-reflective materials), and encourage their production. Potential Difficulties A potential difficulty with this strategy is accurately targeting the appropriate group of motorcyclists. That is, it may be difficult for highway agencies, and the group of stakeholders with which they are working, to identify where motorcyclists congregate and can be expected to view the public information material. Motorcyclists may be effectively reached at rallies and similar events. Also, visibility-enhancement methods and technology need to be affordable and readily available to motorcyclists. Appropriate Measures Depending on the scope of effort, process measures could include the existence and Data of a coordinated system, number of meetings held, number and type of materials produced, and number of postings and contacts made. Roadside evaluations should be conducted before and after the campaign to measure the campaign effectiveness of increased use of visibility-enhancement methods and technology. Associated Needs A media and information campaign. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Central to the success of any motorcycle safety initiative is to form alliances with Institutional and key stakeholders in transportation and motorcycle safety, licensing, enforcement Policy Issues and the motorcycle community. Many state governments support a Motorcycle Safety Advisory Committee (MSAC) through statute or rule. Often, these committees comprise motorcycle leaders, authorities and activists from across the state, and include representatives from state police, DMV, transportation safety and the state's motorcycle safety program. Partnering with MSAC groups is important to begin to (a) understand the problems motorcyclists face and (b) provide a mechanism to convey information between researchers, policy makers and the state leaders and activists within the motorcycling community. Broadening organizational involvement to include the private sector, such as those that produce motorcycles and motorcycle-rider gear, may add a needed dimension to the effectiveness of the strategy. Issues Affecting A public awareness campaign aimed at motorcyclists should be targeted around Implementation Time the prime riding season, when motorcyclists are most likely to be congregating at locations where the public awareness material is distributed (e.g., riding events, etc.). Public awareness campaigns are most effective when timed to coincide with the riding season. This will entail highway agencies beginning to work on information programs well in advance of the prime riding season, in order to have the public awareness campaign ready. Costs Involved Costs vary depending on the scope and size of the campaign. V-73