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11 cally. At the Potomac and Rappahannock Transportation RELATED TECHNOLOGIES Commission, ITS efforts began in 1995, however full ITS functionality was achieved only in 2003 after the second Most APC units count passengers by means of infrared procurement attempt. The report attributes success to more beams. Older units used treadle mats mounted to vehicle mature technologies; a turnkey project contract model; and steps. Sun et al. proposed video technology, including refined, firm specifications based on both practical and multi-object recognition, image segmentation, and feature academic experience. matching, to count boardings and alightings (35). Navick and Furth explored the use of location-stamped farebox data Schweiger notes that the process of ITS implementation to estimate origindestination patterns and loads under the benefits from a consensus among a variety of project stake- assumption that boardings and alightings are symmetrical on holders regarding uses and benefits of new technologies the return trip in the opposite direction (36 ). This approach (33). The author describes the challenges associated with has been used by transit agencies in Chicago and New York stakeholders' input, from the selection of ITS components to estimate origindestination patterns from farecard data to the design of system functionality and from procurement (37, 38). to deployment. Monahan et al. (34) document the implementation of SUMMARY APCs in conjunction with the deployment of ITS technolo- gies at the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Awareness of and experience with APCs are clearly greater for the 1996 Olympic Games. The report summarizes the now than in 1998 when the previous synthesis on this topic benefits of APCs and other ITS technologies and provides was published. At that time, the transit industry was in the lessons learned (34). latter stages of early adoption of this new technology. APCs are in more widespread use now, but issues remain in the Many of the implementation-related lessons address how areas of data integration and implementation. to overcome obstacles. Furth et al. note that one key to APC usefulness is the automatic, routine conversion of the APC A recent addition to the literature is a series of fact sheets data stream into a database of accurate counts (7 ). In the related to transit technologies (39). These fact sheets sum- CTA's experience, typical of many transit agencies, opera- marize useful information on various technologies, includ- tional challenges included bus assignments (ensuring that an ing APCs. The next two chapters present the results of a APC-equipped bus went out on the correct assignment), bus survey of transit agencies regarding experiences with APCs. stop inventory (maintaining an up-to-date list with all stops Survey results provide a snapshot of the state of the art as it accounted for), and undercounting on crowded trips (8). exists today with regard to APCs.