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Glossary Abortion rate: The estimated number of abortions per 1,000 women ages 1544 in a given year. Abortion ratio: The estimated number of abortions per 1,000 live births in a given year. Abruptio placenta: Premature detachment of the placenta from the uterus prior to delivery, which if unheated leads to fetal death, hemorrhage, and blood clotting. Age-spec~c fertility rates: The number of live births occurring during a specified period per 1,000 women within a specific age group. Amenorrhea: Absences of menses, see lactational amenorrhea. Birth interval: The length of time between one birth outcome and the next birth outcome. Birth order: The ordinal number of a given live birth in relation to all previous live births of the same woman (e.g., 5 is the birth order of the 5th live birth occurring to the same woman). Child mortality rate: The annual number of deaths of children ages 1 to 5 per 1,000 live births. Childbearing years: The reproductive age span of women, usually assumed to be from ages 15 to 44 or 49. ~5

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~ ~ 6 GLOSSARY Children ever born: The total number of live births although stillbirths are sometimes included. Cohort: A group of individuals sharing some common event or characteristic, for example, a birth cohort is a group of individuals born in the same time period. Crude birth rate: The annual number of live births per 1,000 people in the population at midyear. -- Crude death rate: The annual number of deaths per 1,000 people in the population at midyear. Eclampsia: See pregnancy-induced hypertension. Ectopic pregnancy: Development of the fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity. Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining the uterus. Fecundity: The biological capacity to reproduce. General fertility rate: The number of live births per 1,000 women of reproduc- tive age (ages 1544 and 1549) in a given year. Gravidity: The number or previous pregnancies a woman has had. Gynecological age: The stage of physical or biological maturation that a girl has achieved. Hemorrhage: Heavy or uncontrolled bleeding. As a pregnancy complication, this condition is most commonly associated with births to mothers with high parity. Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths of infants under age 1 per 1~000 live births in a given year. Intrapartum: Occurring during childbirth or during delivery. Intrauterine growth retardation: Poor growth of a fetus in the uterus, resulting in low birthweight. Lactational amenorrhea: Absence of menses following birth and associated with breastfeeding. Laparotomy: Surgical incision through the abdominal section. Life expectancy: The average number of remaining years of life if current levels of mortality were to continue. Low birthweight: The condition of infants weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth.

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GLOSSARY 1 17 Maternal depletion: A condition in which the moderns nutritional stores are exhausted. Maternal mortality rate: The number of deaths of women of reproductive age in a given year per 10,000 or 100,000 women ages 15 44 (or 1549~. Maternal mortality ratio: The number of deaths of women of reproductive age per 100,000 live births in a given year. Natural fertility: Fertility in the absence of deliberate birth control. Neonatal period: The first 28 days of life. Nulliparous: Having never given birth to a viable infant. Obstructed labor: A condition in which progress toward delivery is obstructed by an abnormality of the pelvis, by an unusually large fetal head or some other abnormal fetal presentation. Parity: The number of previous live births a woman has had. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): Ascending infection from the vaginal or cervix to the uterus, fallopian tubes, and broad ligaments. Perinatal mortality: The combination of fetal deaths occurring after 28 weeks of gestation and infant deaths occurring at less than 1 week of life. Placenta previa: A placenta that develops in the lower uterus so that it covers or adjoins the cervical opening of the uterus, resulting in massive, fatal hemor- rhage at the time of delivery unless a cesarian section is performed. Postneonatal period: The time between the end of the fast month of life and the first birthday. Pregnancy-induced hypertension: A condition that includes abnormally high blood pressure during pregnancy together with edema and protein in the urine, leading in the most severe cases to convulsions and death. In those cases with convulsions, the condition is called eclampsia. Pregnancy interval: The time between pregnancies. Pr~migravida: A woman pregnant for the first time. Primiparity: The condition or fact of being primiparous. Primiparous: Bearing or having borne one child. Relative risk: The probability of an event occurring among those with a particu- lar characteristic relative to the probability of the same event occurring among those without that characteristic. Reproductive mortality: Mortality associated with pregnancy and childbirth.

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~ ~ ~ G~SS - Y Retrospective data: Information that is collected Mom respondents who report recalled experiences from a previous date or Ocular age. Total fertility rate: The mean number of live births to a woman or to a cohort of 1,000 women of reproductive age subject to the age-speciD~c fertility rates of a given year. The total fertility rate is a hypothetical measure, since age-specific fertility rates change from year to year. Unobserved heterogeneity: The exclusion of relevant explanatory variables from a statistical model because they are not available to the analyst (either unobserved or unobservable).