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15 CHAPTER THREE SURVEY RESULTS Based on the many issues raised in the literature review, and of survey respondents reported fleet operations with 21 to using the ATRI survey as a starting point, the Study Team 100 power units (33.3%), followed by 101 to 999 units developed a survey for fleet safety managers and trucking (28.3%), 6 to 20 units (22.2%), more than 1,000 units (14.2%), industry experts. The survey can best be described as a small and 15 units (2%). Thus, a median calculation shows that population convenience survey of the CMV industry; as such, most respondents managed small- to medium-sized fleets. the results may not be representative. It is not known whether the survey responses are representative of the overall trucking 4. How would you characterize your fleet's primary oper- and motor coach industry. ation (select one)? See Table 2 and Figure 2. The survey consisted of 27 multiple-choice questions and was designed to take about 10 min to complete. The initial Other fleet types included: questions gathered basic data such as fleet size and type of oper- Government contractor ations. If a fleet did not use speed limiters, the respondent was Government asked to select one or more reasons for the lack of use and no State government further questions were asked. If a fleet used speed limiters, the Local government respondent was asked about the effectiveness of speed limiters in terms of perceived fleet safety, driver acceptance, vehicle 5. Does your organization use speed limiters in any of your operations, and related issues. General comments and sugges- trucks? tions were also solicited. The respondents were assured that all Percent who use speed limiters = 82.5% (n = 85/103). information provided would be kept strictly confidential. Percent who do not use speed limiters = 17.5% Approximately 1,500 surveys were distributed by e-mail and (n = 18/103). 103 responses were received, resulting in a response rate of approximately 7%. The full survey is presented in Appendix B. If "NO," then why (select all that apply): See Table 3 and Figure 3. DETAILED SURVEY RESULTS Comments provided by respondents for not using speed Following are the survey results for each survey question. The limiters were: actual survey questions are noted in italics and the corre- sponding results are noted beneath each question. Our engine control module (ECM) data do not show we 1. Number of years you have been a safety manager ( for have a problem with drivers speeding. commercial vehicle operations): All trucks governed; speed maintained by "Is my driving Mean years experience at current company = 15 years safe" and then drivers receive feedback on driving. (range 0.553 years). No cost--all you have to do is set maximum speed for 2. Your approximate number of years experience in cruise and road speed in the engine ECM. [This is seem- commercial vehicle operations. ingly a comment in support of speed limiters.] Overall mean years experience in commercial vehi- We have excellent drivers who respect the laws; we cle operations = 26.8 years (range 4.555 years). run all 48 states and don't see the need to limit our 3. Number of power units in your company's fleet: trucks. I believe a truck that is limited to a speed less _______ power units. than the posted speed limit produces a hazard to other Mean number of power units at current company = vehicles using the highway at posted speed limits. 1,124.8 (range = 530,000). Keeping steady speed (use cruise as much as possible). Driver frustration and traffic safety. There were a total of 99 responses to this question. The With our industry terrain (off road--in forests, etc., the mean number of power units can be somewhat deceiving as land is hilly, sandy, extremely wet in some seasons, etc.) the mean suggests the majority of our survey respondents [speed limiters] will not work. Also, our forestry trucks managed large fleets. However, a few very large fleets skew must be able to resume or decrease to or from a high these results. As shown in Table 1 and Figure 1, the majority idle when the trucks are loading as they have loaders

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16 TABLE 1 DISTRIBUTION OF FLEET SIZE (power units) 15 Units 620 Units 21100 Units 101999 Units >1,000 Units % 2.0% 22.2% 33.3% 28.3% 14.2% N 2 22 33 28 14 Out of 99 responses. FIGURE 1 Distribution of fleet size (power units). TABLE 2 FLEET PRIMARY OPERATION For Hire: For Hire: Private: Private: Passenger Carrier: Passenger Carrier: Local Haul Long Haul Long Haul Local Haul Long Haul Local Haul Other % 27.4% 48.1% 6.6% 16.0% 4.7% 0.0% 3.8% N 29 51 7 17 5 0 4 Note: Respondents could select more than one fleet type, thus percentages will sum to more than 100%. FIGURE 2 Fleet primary operation.

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17 TABLE 3 REASON FOR NOT USING SPEED LIMITER Owner Avoid CarTruck All Vehicles Must Operator Delivery Workplace Speed Inability to Have Speed Drive Cost Refusal Time Conflict Differentials Accelerate Limiters Faster % 33.3% 33.3% 5.6% 11.1% 61.1% 38.9% 11.1% 11.1% N 6 6 1 2 11 7 2 2 Note: Respondents could select more than one fleet type, thus percentages will sum to more than 100%. with their units and they require a lot of power for a What is your cruise-control speed? _____ mph proper operation. See Table 4 and Figure 4. 10. What is your non-cruise-control (on-pedal) speed? 6. Do you use a speed limiting device that was factory Mean non-cruise-control setting = 67.2 mph (range = installed by the engine or vehicle manufacturer? 5773 mph) (see Table 5 and Figure 5). Percent usage of factory-installed speed limiter = 11. Do you require speed limiters for owneroperators 95.3% (n = 81/85). you hire? Percent usage of non-factory-installed speed lim- Percent of respondents who require owneroperators iter = 1.2% (n = 1/85). to use speed limiters = 14.5% (12/83). Percent of non-response to question = 3.5% (n = 3/85). Percent of respondents who do not require owner 7. Please estimate what percentage of your fleet uses speed operators to use speed limiters = 36.1% (30/83). limiters: _____% Percent of respondents who indicated this question Percent of power units equipped with speed lim- was not applicable to their organization = 49.4% iter = 90.1% (range = 7%100%). (41/83). 8. How many years have speed limiters been installed in 12. How did you determine the governor speed to set in your your vehicles? fleet (mark all that apply)? (See Table 6 and Figure 6.) Mean years power units equipped with speed lim- Comments provided by respondents were: iters = 11.5 years (range = 227 years). 9. Does your company set a cruise-control speed limit Reduce maintenance cost. that is different from a non-cruise-control (on-pedal) Original Equipment Manufacturer value and Return of speed limit? Investment. Percent of respondents who have a separate cruise- Factory settings. control speed = 43.4% (36/83). Maintenance, tire, time to overhaul cost increases. Percent of respondents who do not have a separate Based on my own driving experience I felt that 10 kph cruise-control speed = 56.6% (47/83). per hour over the limit was realistic. Mean cruise-control speed setting = 65.6 mph Ontario Trucking Association recommendation. (range = 5575 mph). Economic reasons. FIGURE 3 Reason for not using speed limiter.

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18 TABLE 4 TABLE 5 SPEED BINS FOR CRUISE CONTROL SPEED BINS FOR NON-CRUISE CONTROL 5559 mph 6064 mph 6569 mph >70 mph 5559 mph 6064 mph 6569 mph >70 mph % 5.6% 30.6% 50% 13.8% % 3.8% 12.8% 48.7% 34.6% N 2 11 18 5 N 3 10 38 27 Out of 36 responses. Out of 78 responses. 13. What are the TOP 3 intended goal (s) of speed limiters Specific comments were: ( please write number 1, 2, or 3 to rank order). (See Tables 7 and 8.) If a driver receives two speeding violations, the speed limiter is reduced to 58. More specific comments provided by respondents were Drivers with 2 Million Safe Miles are set at 65 mph. (with number of similar responses in parentheses): Testing the speed on fuel mileage of new 08 engines. Based on state law. Fatigue management aid (3). Any driver convicted of a speeding violation has speed Reduce driver fatigue (4). reduced by 3 mph for 6 months. Financial liability in crashes. All students who come to us are set at 65, veteran guys Reduce crash severity (3). are at 70. If they are put on probation for any safety related reason they are set at 65. Send message of the importance of speed control (3). Why would you take your safest driver and then provide Improve maintenance cost (3). him/her with a higher rate of speed? The goal is safe cost Vehicle wear (3). to operate. Giving a higher speed does NOT improve Reduce maintenance, tire, and time to overhaul costs. productivity. It only increases costs of operation that Managing our corporate image. Speeding trucks carry the ultimately will reduce drivers pay. It has to come from wrong message to the public. I lobbied for a tighter speed somewhere. control for years, and was only successful as fuel prices If accidents occur, speed is reduced further for one year. climbed (3). Limit top speed to 65 mph for drivers with safety viola- Overall safety (3). tions. Insurance rates (2). Some higher risk drivers have speed reduced to either Liability issue if involved in a speed-related accident (1). 62 mph or 56 mph. 14. Do you have any variations in the top speed of the 15. Have drivers tampered with the speed limiter settings? speed limiter among your drivers? For example, dif- Percent of respondents who indicated a driver tam- ferent speeds for drivers with an excellent or poor pered with speed limiter = 22.6% (19/84). safety record. Percent of respondents who indicated no driver Percent of respondents who indicated variations in tampering with speed limiter = 77.4% (65/84). the top speed of the speed limiter = 11.9% (10/84). Percent of respondents who indicated a driver tam- Percent of respondents who did not indicate variations pering with speed limiter who have a policy (penal- in the top speed of the speed limiter = 88.1% (74/84). ties) for tampering with speed limiter = 94.7% (18/19). FIGURE 4 Speed bins for cruise control.

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19 FIGURE 5 Speed bins for non-cruise control. TABLE 6 HOW SET SPEED FOR SPEED GOVERNOR WAS DETERMINED Posted Speed Fuel Insurance Driver Followed Other Safety Limit Mileage Requirement Input Trucking Organization Other % 90.6% 56.5% 69.4% 16.5% 16.5% 11.8% 9.4% N 77 48 59 14 14 10 8 Out of 85 respondents. Note: Respondents could select more than one choice, thus percentages will sum to more than 100%. FIGURE 6 How set speed for speed governor was determined. TABLE 7 TOP THREE INTENDED GOALS OF SPEED LIMITERS (ranked as 1, 2, or 3) Reduce Increase Reduce Reduce Overall Reduce Speed Reduce Fuel Top Speed Speeding Crashes Violations Tire Wear Economy Other Mean 1.61 2.03 1.73 2.33 2.41 1.94 2.55 N 47 31 49 27 17 66 11 Out of 85 respondents. Note: Not all respondents chose three goals.

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20 TABLE 8 TOP THREE GOALS FOR SPEED LIMITERS, SHOWING RANKING PREFERENCES Top Three Intended Goals for Using Speed Limiter Mean Ranking #1 #2 #3 Total Reduce Top Speed 1.61 27 11 9 47 Reduce Crashes 1.73 22 18 9 49 Increase Fuel Economy 1.94 24 22 20 66 Reduce Overall Speeding 2.03 9 12 10 31 Reduce Speed Violations 2.33 5 8 14 27 Reduce Tire Wear 2.41 0 10 7 17 Other 2.55 2 1 8 11 Out of 85 respondents. Responses to tampering were listed as: Simply disobeying the posted speed limits. Nothing to do with making up time. Discipline Tracking system also provides data on units exceeding Discipline including termination (2 responses) speed limits. Will be given warning for 1st violation and fired for 2nd Had one driver that complained max speed was 64 mph violation Termination (13 responses) "he knew speedometer was correct because radar speed None to date, but should it occur it would be considered sign told him so while driving through 45 mph con- destruction of company property. struction zone." Based on logged time and miles w/metered time/date 16. Based on your experience, how successful have the stamps (mean speed is very high). speed limiters been in reducing speeding violations? Regardless of speed limiters, the vehicle operator will (See Table 9 and Figure 7.) often speed through lower speed areas if he or she 17. Based on your experience, are you aware of drivers believes they can get away with it. The excuse of "mak- traveling faster than normal in lower speed areas in ing up lost time" has long been tried and lost. Chronic order to "make up" time "lost" by using a speed lim- speeders will take the opportunity to speed in any speed iter on interstate routes? controlled area they believe they can get away with. Percent of respondents who indicated that drivers do this behavior = 88% (n = 73/83). 18. Based on your experience, how successful have the Percent of respondents who indicated that drivers speed limiters been in reducing crashes? (See Table 10 did not do this behavior = 12% (n = 10/83). and Figure 8.) 19. Based on your experience, how successful have the Specific comments were: speed limiters been in reducing tire wear? (See Table 11 Get as many miles as possible. and Figure 9.) Our pick-up and delivery appointments are set based on 20. Based on your experience, how successful have the appropriate transit times considering the governed speed speed limiters been in increasing fuel economy? (See and speed limits making it unnecessary for a driver to Table 12 and Figure 10.) speed to make up time. If they feel the need to speed to 21. Based on your experience, how often do the speed make up time it's because they have wasted time some- limiters reduce on-time delivery? (See Table 13 and where else. Figure 11.) Although I don't believe it is a widespread problem, I 22. Based on your experience, what has the driver response am not sure that they do it to make up time. I think it is been toward the speed limiter? (See Table 14 and mainly due to habit. Figure 12.) TABLE 9 SUCCESS OF SPEED LIMITERS IN REDUCING SPEED VIOLATIONS Very Very Cannot Successful Successful Neutral Unsuccessful Unsuccessful Determine % 34.5% 29.8% 23.8% 4.8% 0.0% 7.1% N 29 25 20 4 0 6 Out of 84 responses.

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21 FIGURE 7 Success of speed limiters in reducing speed violations. TABLE 10 SUCCESS OF SPEED LIMITERS IN REDUCING CRASHES Very Very Cannot Successful Successful Neutral Unsuccessful Unsuccessful Determine % 17.9% 38.0% 27.4% 2.4% 0.0% 14.3% N 15 32 23 2 0 12 Out of 84 responses. FIGURE 8 Success of speed limiters in reducing crashes. TABLE 11 SUCCESS OF SPEED LIMITERS IN REDUCING TIRE WEAR Very Very Cannot Successful Successful Neutral Unsuccessful Unsuccessful Determine % 14.1% 30.6% 32.9% 2.4% 0.0% 20% N 12 26 28 2 0 17 Out of 85 responses.

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22 FIGURE 9 Success of speed limiters in reducing tire wear. TABLE 12 SUCCESS OF SPEED LIMITERS IN INCREASING FUEL ECONOMY Very Very Cannot Successful Successful Neutral Unsuccessful Unsuccessful Determine % 35.7% 40.4% 17.9% 2.4% 0.0% 3.6% N 30 34 15 2 0 3 Out of 84 responses. FIGURE 10 Success of speed limiters in increasing fuel economy.

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23 TABLE 13 Because we were the only one in our area to have speed DO SPEED LIMITERS REDUCE ON-TIME DELIVERY? limiters. Very Often Often Neutral Seldom Very Seldom % 0% 0% 15.9% 32.9% 51.2% 25. Have speed limiters negatively affected productivity N 0 0 13 27 42 in any area of your operations? Percent of respondents who indicated that overall Out of 82 responses. speed limiters negatively affected productivity = 3.6% (3/84). Percent of respondents who indicated that overall, speed limiters did not negatively affected produc- 23. Based on your experience, in what way does having tivity = 96.4% (81/84). speed limiters on fleet vehicles impact driver hiring and retention? (See Table 15 and Figure 13.) Specific comments from respondents indicating negative 24. Have speed limiters negatively affected safety in any effects were: area of your operations? Percent of respondents who indicated that overall 65 mph is not top speed on interstate reducing long haul speed limiters negatively affected safety = 3.6% productivity. (3/84). Percent of respondents who indicated that overall Our fleet could cover more miles in a shorter time if our speed limiters did not negatively affected safety = trucks were not governed or governed at a higher speed; 96.4% (81/84). however, we do not feel the trade-off of slight improve- ments in productivity offset the lower accident risk and Specific comments from respondents indicating negative cost improvements in fuel, maintenance, good will, etc. effects were: Very slightly though, as drivers complain they can't make appointments sometimes. Increased exposure to being rear-ended, mental stress on drivers as traffic runs around them, occasional 26. Overall, the use of speed governors has improved road rage events with other motorists mad about our your fleet operations. (See Table 16 and Figure 14.) speed on clogged highways; these are all due to our 27. Please feel free to write any comments, issues, or set speed of 60 mph. We would have speed governors experiences you've had with speed limiters. on our trucks regardless of the desired set speed we Speed limiters and on-board recorders have been part choose, they have wiped out open highway speeding of our fleet strategy for more than 50 years. There is problems for us where the posted speed is above our no doubt the combination of the two have helped us set speed. In the distant future I expect we will have identify aggressive drivers and either improve their speed governor settings tailored to the operation, long performance or get rid of them. We fully and totally haul out west may be set to 65 or 70 mph while regional support the recent initiative to add speed governors to or short haul in more congested areas will remain at all trucks in the United States; and that the principle 60 mph for us. should be applied to all vehicles on the road. FIGURE 11 Do speed limiters reduce on-time delivery?

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24 TABLE 14 DRIVER RESPONSES TO THE SPEED LIMITER Very Positive Positive Neutral Negative Very Negative Cannot Determine % 0% 23.2% 64.6% 8.5% 1.2% 2.4% N 0 19 53 7 1 2 Out of 82 responses. FIGURE 12 Driver responses to the speed limiter. TABLE 15 AFFECT OF SPEED LIMITERS ON DRIVER HIRING/RETENTION Strong Adverse Adverse Neutral Positive Strong Positive Cannot Impact Impact Impact Impact Impact Determine % 0% 6.2% 77.8% 4.9% 2.5% 8.6% N 0 5 63 4 2 7 Out of 81 responses. FIGURE 13 Affect of speed limiters on driver hiring/retention.

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25 TABLE 16 In the Western states drivers will complain about OVERALL, HAS USE OF SPEED LIMITERS IMPROVED FLEET OPERATIONS? the 70 mph limit; we adhere to our set speed limit. Secondary roads are where speed violations occur. Strongly Strongly Speed limiters have been used very successfully in Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree Europe for a very long time. Their experience should % 28% 46.3% 24.4% 1.2% 0% be invaluable to you. Another very good reason for N 23 38 20 1 0 legislating the use of speed limiters to vehicles that "haul stuff" is to allow them to NOT be subject to the Out of 82 responses. most stringent CAF standards. Fuel economy stan- dards should be different for vehicles that are to be used for the mobility of individuals than those for No issues with speed limiters except the rare driver vehicles designed to move goods or large groups of that tries to bypass the limiter. There is no impact to people. Those vehicles necessarily need to be sub- our service or driver pay. stantially larger than personal vehicles and thus Would only install on current fleet if a federal should not need to meet the same stringent fuel requirement; if vehicle had it installed would keep economy standards that should be met with personal it maintained and working. Consideration should be vehicles. That said, those larger vehicles should also made for this to be a new vehicle requirement ver- have their speeds restricted for the very reasons that sus having to install on older vehicles. you are studying. Thus, tying together fuel economy In the fleets we work with, some are very technology standards with speed limiters creates the proper mar- minded, and others (more vocational) are not. For ket incentives. If one needs/wants a large vehicle to the more progressive, if the device has a positive "haul stuff," then that vehicle needs to be speed lim- impact on productivity or efficiency, they might ited. If instead one doesn't need to "haul stuff" then likely adopt such technologies. In fact, one such fleet one can purchase a fuel efficient vehicle that is not that we are working with is looking to limit the oper- speed limited. My view is that way too many people ating domain of the vehicle's engine to ensure that it are commuting in fuel inefficient macho trucks. runs (on the average) more closely to its "sweet Much of their macho would dissipate if they were spot." It also limits more aggressive drivers. The speed limited. Also, for those that are really in the vocational fleets are really more interested in the business of "hauling stuff," they really don't need bottom line. If there are no major benefits, they are nor desire to break the speed limit. not going to spend any funds on these devices. In my opinion, as an investigator of commercial Speed limiters have caused no issues in the charter vehicle accidents, I would speculate that most operations we operate. I strongly believe this to be a motor carriers utilize speed limiters (which I believe good safety tool for all commercial vehicles. are standard equipment on all large commercial We had on-board computers for years so the speed trucks and buses) to save fuel and keep the driver limiters only made the supervisor's job easier by from driving at unreasonably high speeds. The speed not having speeding violations to deal with after limiters are difficult for the driver to tamper with, as the fact. they take special software and electronic equipment FIGURE 14 Overall, has the use of speed limiters improved fleet operations?

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26 to change. One of the problems of speed limiters is Shippers/receivers do not care about FMCSA regu- the variation of speed limits in different parts of the lations (e.g., on hours of service, time allowed to country. In states where the maximum truck speed driver, etc.). They want to be able to ship it late and limit is 55 mph, perhaps 60 or 62 mph would be a have it delivered early. reasonable setting. However, in the western United When dealing in the area of passenger safety, you States where there are higher speed limits, 70 to just cannot afford to have even one "loose cannon" 75 mph, and even 80 mph on stretches of I-10 in amongst your driver force who may jeopardize the Texas, a lower setting would be frustrating to the safety of his/her passengers by driving excessively driver and motor carrier. fast. The use of speed governors is widely used in the The fleet has always used driver monitoring devices commercial vehicle industry in Europe. It makes no that included driver logs but most importantly tach- sense at all that we would take an 80,000 lb vehicle o-graphs that record movement, idling, and speed. that will travel 80 mph off an assembly line and put As technology has advanced other technologies it out on the highway. The debate should not be on were introduced to ensure driver speed was being whether speed governors should be used or not-- monitored. The highest legal speed limit for any the technology is available and we should use it. units since 1940s was 65 mph. In 1973 speeds were The debate should center on what is the correct gov- dropped to 55 mph under federal rules. In 1981 due erned speed. I'm pretty sure we all would agree it's to driver input, speed limit was raised to 60 mph. At not 100 mph. Is it 90 mph? Most would feel that is the same time the fleet added speed control devices still too high, is it 80 mph? 70? 60? Our industry that were basically a cruise control device that would should be using the available technologies to improve also minimize maximum speeds to 60 mph. In 1994 highway safety and the reputation of the industry. with the Cummins M-11 engine we began shutting Additionally, if the speeds were governed then the the trucks down through ECM parameters. We industry would essentially enforce posted speed began setting the gear down protection at 49 mph to limits on Interstates themselves allowing enforce- force them into top gear and at same time set maxi- ment resources to be shifted to roadways with mum cruise and road speed at 60 mph. Idle interrup- lower posted speed limits that tend to have higher tion used to be set at 10 min in the early 1990s and in instances of crashes. The net effect of governed the late 90s it went to 8 min. Today, if a unit does not maximum speed and a redeployment of enforce- have the clutch depressed, is moving, or does not have ment to higher crash risk locations would be lower a Power Take Off engaged, the idle time is 3 min. serious crashes. Managing speed is the most cost-effective thing a When passing you can't go any faster than the pre- fleet or any operator--even owneroperators--can set speed and tend to spend more time in the oncom- do to reduce costs and improve bottom line (take ing traffic lane. I like how some engine companies home $$$$$$). If every truck on the highway have a bonus speed program (i.e., 20 min in 8 h of operated at speeds no greater than 65 mph, cost of extra speed to pass). When set at 100 kph (speed operations would reduce by as much as 30 cents-- limit) most vehicles drive 108 kph and the trucks are 15 cents per mile (i.e., cost of fuel when speeds are always getting passed or create traffic congestion. more than 55 mph, increased maintenance cost, Cost of operating a commercial motor vehicle can be increased tire cost, reduced time to overhaul). A somewhat reduced when you hire, lease, and moni- good study that still holds true today is ATA's tor driver performance prior to and during tenure (TMC) Technical Report, "55 vs. 65 An Equip- with company. A bad driver (speed) will shift wrong ment Operating Costs Comparison." In the study, and go against suggested driving manners. Bad habits TMC illustrates that there is no productivity improve- cause some good things to sour. ment between 55 mph and 65 mph. But there is a cost As long as a truck can go the speed limit and have a penalty of 1/2 mile per gallon in fuel + an almost equal little extra speed available to pass if needed speed cost in additional maintenance, tires, and reduced limiters are not a problem. If the limiter is an attempt time to overhaul. At $3.00 per gallon a truck aver- to make the truck go slower than traffic or the speed aging 6 mpg at 60 mph will have a per mile fuel cost limit, then it will cause more accidents. I think very of $0.50. When increasing the speed to 65 mph (if few accidents are caused by excessive speed of a re-geared to meet the engines sweet spot for fuel truck. We are spending too much time and money economy--$6,000) the cost per mile for fuel alone going after trucks when we should be focusing on is now at $0.545 per mile with an additional equal the cause of most accidents . . . cars. cost (SWAG--Sure Wild Assed Guess) of $0.045 Historically we used "governors" on engines; today, cent per mile in additional maintenance, tire, and the ECM is easy to set to limit speed. reduced time to overhaul costs. The difference of The problem that trucking companies still face is the 60 mph verses 65 mph is a conservative $0.10 unrealistic expectations of shippers and receivers. (dime) per mile. You would have to run a lot of

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27 miles to try and improve the productivity and you This is a safety initiative as well as fuel savings. . . . would have to haul an extra load to make up for More importantly it is the right thing to do. additional cost--which in turn starts spiral over Success in trucking comes with reducing speed. again--you never catch up. Reduce accidents, save fuel, reduce maintenance Question 17 asked about speeding in lower speed costs. If government introduces a law to make it areas to make up time lost by using speed limiters. mandatory everyone wins. Driver complaints will While I do not feel that our drivers speed in lower subside when everyone is on a level playing field. speed areas to make up time, they do speed in those Personally, I'm disgusted by speeding; trucks fol- areas on occasion and would do so even if their lowing too close to other vehicles at 75 mph are out trucks did not have speed limiters. Our drivers are of control in an emergency. paid by the hour and we constantly reinforce safety Should not be controlled by government. Speed first even if it means being late, so there is less incen- should be controlled by police and company owners. tive for them to speed to "make up time," whereas a Pulling heavy loads can be tricky at some points. driver paid by the mile has incentive to speed in Personally, I would not drive trucks myself any- order to make more money. If I am paid $0.40 cents more with that. Things are getting out of hand in the a mile and I can travel 60 miles in an hour I will be trucking industry. No more interest in trucking. making the equivalent of $24.00 an hour. If I travel Based on Question 23, if a driver objects to speed 50 miles in an hour I am making $20.00 an hour, limiting you do not want that driver. Also, if you etc., at the end of the week that difference can add have to make-up time then you are not properly dis- up. Of course the pressure from dispatch and the patching trucks--the biggest speed limit offenders customer can drive the "need for speed" as well. are truckers that are on a pay per trip basis. Also, Most of our drivers are paid by the hour. Before set- shippers that do not give enough advanced notice ting the speed limit, we undertook a strong commu- for deliveries. nication program to carefully explain what we were The only detrimental effect of speed limiters is if the doing, when, and why. Many drivers resisted, but limiter is set on unrealistic limits and controlled by they have come to accept it. Because they are paid by a government regulation or agency. Trucks should the hour, speed is more a "quality of life issue" than be allowed to go with the flow of traffic and not it is a perceived pay issue. For our drivers paid a per- have a two-tier speed system to suit the conscience centage of revenue, a maximum speed of 65 mph has of a group of people that have no vested interest in caused us occasional recruiting issues, because limit- transportation. ing speed is perceived to reduce income (and it may). They are very good tools and should be used by all We're OK with that. companies. I have not made any effort to track the "before and We always have to take into consideration the worst after" affects in terms of fuel economy or accident case scenario. We always want to strike a happy results, because I knew that regardless, I had no medium and we run Midwest and West. That is why intention of raising the speed once we went through we run more than 70 on top speed. all the trouble of governing it. I'd be happy to see the national speed limit reduced I have always limited the speed on our company fleet. to 55 mph again to reduce accidents and increase I have felt that our image was more likely to be posi- fuel economy. tive if the trucks were operating at a realistic speed. Speed limiters only serve to ensure a maximum vehi- When first installed we experienced a lot of negativ- cle speed, thereby providing comfort in some assur- ity, but after a very short time other issues like wages ance of public safety (as much as highway speed and benefits became more important to drivers. New limitations will allow). Operators must recognize that drivers were informed of our speed limiter policy company fleet drivers are prone to "pushing" the lim- and there have been no issues with these employees. its in the same fashion as the general driving popula- It is without exception the only safe and economical tion. So, the faster the unit can go, the faster the unit way to run a trucking operation. is likely to be driven! Speed limiters are not the Our industry is capital intensive/low margin; thus, answer to speeding violations other than in jurisdic- reducing operating costs is imperative to an organi- tions where the maximum posted speed cannot phys- zations financial success. Controlling the largest ically be exceeded because of the limiter setting. controllable expense (i.e., fuel) is imperative. The bi- Lower highway speeds will have some impact on product is reduced tire and maintenance costs com- vehicle maintenance costs in areas such as tire, brake, bined with reduced accident frequency and severity. and engine wear resulting from lower speed and rpm. Managing, planning, and executing our transactional The fuel saving benefits are minimal for vehicles activity in a safe and healthy manner should and traveling more than 60 mph regardless of speed lim- must be our mandate for the employees and general itation beyond that number; however, there will be public at large. some savings for every 5 mph less of top speed