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CTBSSP COMMERCIAL TRUCK AND BUS SAFETY SYNTHESIS 16 Sponsored by the Safety Impacts of Speed Federal Motor Carrier Limiter Device Installations Safety Administration on Commercial Trucks and Buses A Synthesis of Safety Practice
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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Vice Chair: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg JOHN D. BOWE, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles DAVID S. EKERN, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JEFFREY W. HAMIEL, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN EDWARD A. (NED) HELME, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC WILL KEMPTON, Director, California DOT, Sacramento SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City MICHAEL D. MEYER, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore PETE K. RAHN, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR ROSA CLAUSELL ROUNTREE, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin LINDA S. WATSON, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando STEVE WILLIAMS, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS THAD ALLEN (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA PAUL R. BRUBAKER, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC SEAN T. CONNAUGHTON, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC JOHN H. HILL, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC CARL T. JOHNSON, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS DAVID KELLY, Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT THOMAS J. MADISON, JR., Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC JAMES S. SIMPSON, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT ROBERT A. STURGELL, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC
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COMMERCIAL TRUCK AND BUS SAFETY SYNTHESIS PROGRAM CTBSSP SYNTHESIS 16 Safety Impacts of Speed Limiter Device Installations on Commercial Trucks and Buses A Synthesis of Safety Practice CONSULTANTS RICHARD BISHOP Bishop Consulting Granite, Maryland DANIEL C. MURRAY and WILLIAM McDONALD American Transportation Research Institute St. Paul, Minnesota JEFF HICKMAN Virginia Tech Transportation Institute Blacksburg, Virginia GENE BERGOFFEN MaineWay Services Fryeburg, Maine S UBJECT A REAS Operations and Safety and Freight Transportation Research Sponsored by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org
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COMMERCIAL TRUCK AND BUS SAFETY CTBSSP SYNTHESIS 16 SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Safety is a principal focus of government agencies and private-sector orga- Project MC-17 nizations concerned with transportation. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety ISSN 1544-6808 Administration (FMCSA) was established within the Department of Trans- ISBN: 978-0-309-09827-4 portation on January 1, 2000, pursuant to the Motor Carrier Safety Improve- Library of Congress Control Number 20089112791 ment Act of 1999. Formerly a part of the Federal Highway Administration, the FMCSA's primary mission is to prevent commercial motor vehicle- © 2008 Transportation Research Board related fatalities and injuries. Administration activities contribute to ensuring safety in motor carrier operations through strong enforcement of safety reg- ulations, targeting high-risk carriers and commercial motor vehicle drivers; COPYRIGHT PERMISSION improving safety information systems and commercial motor vehicle tech- nologies; strengthening commercial motor vehicle equipment and operating Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for standards; and increasing safety awareness. To accomplish these activities, obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the the Administration works with federal, state, and local enforcement agencies, copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. the motor carrier industry, labor, safety interest groups, and others. In addi- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce tion to safety, security-related issues are also receiving significant attention in light of the terrorist events of September 11, 2001. material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Administrators, commercial truck and bus carriers, government regulators, Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or information may be fragmented, scattered, and underevaluated. As a conse- practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document quence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valu- of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the able experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given material, request permission from CRP. to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information available on nearly every subject of concern to com- mercial truck and bus safety. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To pro- NOTICE vide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful informa- The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Commercial tion and to make it available to the commercial truck and bus industry, the Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program conducted by the Transportation Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) was estab- lished by the FMCSA to undertake a series of studies to search out and syn- Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National thesize useful knowledge from all available sources and to prepare docu- Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment mented reports on current practices in the subject areas of concern. Reports that the program concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes from this endeavor constitute the CTBSSP Synthesis series, which collects and resources of the National Research Council. and assembles the various forms of information into single concise documents The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this pertaining to specific commercial truck and bus safety problems or sets of project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly closely related problems competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines The CTBSSP, administered by the Transportation Research Board, began appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or in early 2002 in support of the FMCSA's safety research programs. The pro- implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, gram initiates three to four synthesis studies annually that address concerns in the area of commercial truck and bus safety. A synthesis report is a docu- while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they ment that summarizes existing practice in a specific technical area based typ- are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National ically on a literature search and a survey of relevant organizations (e.g., state Research Council, or the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration of the DOTs, enforcement agencies, commercial truck and bus companies, or other U.S. Department of Transportation. organizations appropriate for the specific topic). The primary users of the syn- Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel theses are practitioners who work on issues or problems using diverse according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation approaches in their individual settings. The program is modeled after the suc- Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the cessful synthesis programs currently operated as part of the National Coop- National Research Council. erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). The Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, and This synthesis series reports on various practices, making recommendations the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (sponsor of the where appropriate. Each document is a compendium of the best knowledge Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program) do not endorse available on measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclu- solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness sion of significant knowledge, available information assembled from numer- of the project reporting. ous sources, including a large number of relevant organizations, is analyzed. For each topic, the project objectives are (1) to locate and assemble docu- mented information; (2) to learn what practice has been used for solving or alleviating problems; (3) to identify all ongoing research; (4) to learn what problems remain largely unsolved; and (5) to organize, evaluate, and docu- ment the useful information that is acquired. Each synthesis is an immediately useful document that records practices that were acceptable within the limi- tations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. The CTBSSP is governed by a Program Oversight Panel consisting of indi- Published reports of the viduals knowledgeable in the area of commercial truck and bus safety from a number of perspectives--commercial truck and bus carriers, key industry trade COMMERCIAL TRUCK AND BUS SAFETY associations, state regulatory agencies, safety organizations, academia, and SYNTHESIS PROGRAM related federal agencies. Major responsibilities of the panel are to (1) provide are available from: general oversight of the CTBSSP and its procedures, (2) annually select syn- thesis topics, (3) refine synthesis scopes, (4) select researchers to prepare each Transportation Research Board synthesis, (5) review products, and (6) make publication recommendations. Business Office Each year, potential synthesis topics are solicited through a broad indus- 500 Fifth Street, NW try-wide process. Based on the topics received, the Program Oversight Panel Washington, DC 20001 selects new synthesis topics based on the level of funding provided by the and can be ordered through the Internet at FMCSA. In late 2002, the Program Oversight Panel selected two task-order http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore contractor teams through a competitive process to conduct syntheses for Fis- cal Years 2003 through 2005. Printed in the United States of America
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academys í p urposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Insti- tute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation depart- ments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
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CTBSSP OVERSIGHT PANEL CRP STAFF FOR CTBSSP SYNTHESIS 16 CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research STEPHEN CAMPBELL Programs Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance, Washington, DC NANDA SRINIVASAN, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS THOMAS M. CORSI CTBSSP SYNTHESIS STAFF University of Maryland, College Park, MD STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs NICHOLAS J. GARBER JON M. WILLIAMS, Associate Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA DONNA VLASAK, Senior Program Officer ALEX GUARIENTO DON TIPPMAN, Editor Greyhound Lines, Inc., Dallas, TX CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant SCOTT MADAR ORC Worldwide, Washington, DC DAVID OSIECKI American Trucking Associations, Alexandria, VA JOHN SIEBERT OwnerOperator Independent Drivers Association, Grain Valley, MO LARRY F. SUTHERLAND TranSystems Corporation, Dublin, OH R. GREER WOODRUFF J. B. Hunt Transport, Inc., Lowell, AR ALBERT ALVAREZ Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington, DC (Liaison) MARTIN WALKER Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington, DC (Liaison) WILLIAM MAHORNEY Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC (Liaison) DAVID SMITH Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC (Liaison) CHRISTOPHER ZEILINGER Community Transportation Association of America, Washington, DC (Liaison) GREG HULL American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC (Liaison) LEO PENNE American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials, Washington, DC (Liaison) RICHARD PAIN Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (Liaison) CHARLES W. NIESSNER Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (Liaison)
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FOREWORD Administrators, commercial truck and bus carriers, government regulators, and re- searchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in docu- mented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and underevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly re- search findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due con- sideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information available on nearly every subject of concern to commercial truck and bus safety. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day jobs. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the commercial truck and bus industry, the Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) was established by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to un- dertake a series of studies to search out and synthesize useful knowledge from all avail- able sources and to prepare documented reports on current practices in the subject areas of concern. Reports from this endeavor constitute the CTBSSP Synthesis series, which collects and assembles information into single concise documents pertaining to specific commercial truck and bus safety problems. The CTBSSP, administered by the Transportation Research Board, was authorized in late 2001 and began in 2002 in support of the FMCSA's safety research programs. The program initiates several synthesis studies annually that address issues in the area of commercial truck and bus safety. A synthesis report is a document that summarizes ex- isting practice in a specific technical area based typically on a literature search and a sur- vey of relevant organizations (e.g., state DOTs, enforcement agencies, commercial truck and bus companies, or other organizations appropriate for the specific topic). The pri- mary users of the syntheses are practitioners who work on issues or problems using di- verse approaches in their individual settings. This synthesis series reports on various practices; each document is a compendium of the best knowledge available on measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclu- sion of significant knowledge, available information assembled from numerous sources is analyzed. For each topic, the project objectives are (1) to locate and assemble documented in- formation; (2) to learn what practices have been used for solving or alleviating prob- lems; (3) to identify relevant, ongoing research; (4) to learn what problems remain largely unsolved; and (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the useful information that is acquired. Each synthesis is an immediately useful document that records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. PREFACE This synthesis examines and summarizes literature and industry information relating to By Donna Vlasak speed limiters; exploring questions concerning measurable safety impacts, metrics, and Senior Program Officer degree of benefit, if any. Speed limiters, also described as speed governors, are devices that Transportation interact with a truck engine to only permit the attainment of a pre-programmed speed. The Research Board purpose is to synthesize data, research, and analyses performed to date in terms of both methodologies employed to assess speed limiters and the actual results, which may be used to guide policy development in North America. The scope of the project encompassed an assessment of the safety efficacy of speed limiters, for commercial motor vehicles in Aus-
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tralia and Europe, as well as in North America and, in addition, for commercial vehicle operations, surveyed truck and intercity and charter bus carriers, that have experience in using speed limiters regarding perceived benefits and/or drawbacks. It is noted that, although this synthesis provides a general understanding of speed limiter use in commer- cial motor vehicle operations, it does not provide a methodological comparison of before- and-after results applied uniformly across predefined truck and bus fleet operations. An approach to an in-depth empirical study that would gather data from the commercial truck and bus industry with regard to the safety effectiveness of speed limiters is suggested. A primary (small population convenience) survey that targeted fleet safety managers within specific companies, representing roughly 400 truck and motor coach fleets plus other industry stakeholders, was administered to obtain additional insight from actual users as to speed limiter usage levels and perceived benefits and drawbacks of speed limiters. Fifteen hundred synthesis surveys were distributed and 103 responses were received, for a response rate of approximately 7%.
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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background and Problem Statement, 3 Objectives and Scope, 3 Approach, 3 Organization of the Report, 4 6 CHAPTER TWO RESULTS OF LITERATURE REVIEW Speed and Crashes, 6 Countermeasures to Speed-Related Crashes, 7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Speed Limiters, 10 Policy Initiatives to Mandate Speed Limiters, 11 Assessments of Speed Limiter Effectiveness, 13 15 CHAPTER THREE SURVEY RESULTS Detailed Survey Results, 15 Summary of Results from the Written Survey, 28 Results from Telephone Interviews, 30 Comparison with American Transportation Research Institute and OwnerOperators Independent Drivers Association Survey Results, 31 32 CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSIONS Conclusions, 32 Potential Steps for an Empirical Study of Speed Limiter Use, 33 35 REFERENCES 37 ACRONYMS 38 SI (MODERN METRIC) CONVERSION FACTORS 39 APPENDIX A CONTRIBUTING ORGANIZATIONS 40 APPENDIX B SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE