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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 630 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Measuring Tire-Pavement Noise at the Source

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Consultant, Tyrone, GA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT Clifford C. Eby, Acting Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT David Kelly, Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Sherry E. Little, Acting Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Thomas J. Madison, Jr., Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of January 2009.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 630 Measuring Tire-Pavement Noise at the Source Paul R. Donavan Dana M. Lodico ILLINGWORTH & RODKIN, INC. Petaluma, CA Subject Areas Materials and Construction Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 630 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 1-44 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN: 978-0-309-11768-5 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2009900077 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2009 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 630 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Amir N. Hanna, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Maria Sabin Crawford, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 1-44 PANEL Field of Design--Area of Pavements Matthew W. Mueller, Illinois DOT, Springfield, IL (Chair) Randell H. "Randy" Iwasaki, California DOT, Sacramento, CA German J. Claros, Texas DOT, Austin, TX Larry Lockett, Alabama DOT, Montgomery, AL David E. Newcomb, National Asphalt Pavement Association, Lanham, MD John H. Roberts, American Concrete Pavement Association, Coxsackie, NY Judith L. Rochat, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Cambridge, MA Larry A. Scofield, American Concrete Pavement Association, Mesa, AZ (formerly with Arizona DOT) Roger L. Wayson, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL Robert Orthmeyer, FHWA Liaison Mark Swanlund, FHWA Liaison Frederick Hejl, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported in this document was performed under NCHRP Project 1-44 by Illingworth & Rodkin, Inc., Petaluma, California. Dr. Paul Donavan was the Principal Investigator. Ms. Dana Lodico of Illingworth & Rodkin, Inc., participated in the data acquisition and analysis and was the second author of this report. Chris Peters also of Illingworth & Rodkin, Inc., assisted in the fieldwork. The National Cen- ter of Asphalt Technology, Auburn, Alabama, served as a subcontractor for this research. The authors acknowledge the assistance provided by MnDOT personnel at the MnRoads test facility in Minnesota and the assistance provided by General Motors personnel at the GM Desert Proving Ground test facility in Arizona during the test parameter investigation phase of this work. The authors also extend their gratitude to Dr. James Cable of Iowa State University for his assistance in identifying test sites in Iowa and coordinating the assistance provided by Mr. Bruce Rymer of Caltrans in coordinating test site usage in the State of California.

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FOREWORD By Amir N. Hanna Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report presents a suggested procedure for measuring tire-pavement noise at the source. The procedure uses the on-board sound intensity (OBSI) method that was found to be the pre- ferred approach for measuring tire-pavement noise at the source. Although the research pre- sented in this report provided a basis for the recently introduced provisional Standard Test Method for the Measurement of Tire/Pavement Noise Using the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) Method (AASHTO Designation TP076-08), the procedure includes some modifica- tions to the provisional standard. The content of the report will be of immediate interest to state engineers and others concerned with pavement design and construction and the noise impacts on nearby communities. Tire-pavement noise has become an increasingly important consideration for highway agencies as the public consistently demands that highway traffic noise be mitigated. Although sound walls provide a means for addressing highway noise, improved pavement structures and surfaces may provide a competitive alternative for noise mitigation. How- ever, there are no widely accepted procedures for measuring solely tire-pavement noise under in-service conditions. Thus, research was needed to evaluate potential noise-measuring procedures and identify or develop appropriate procedures applicable to light and heavy vehicles and all paved surfaces. Under NCHRP Project 1-44, "Measuring Tire-Pavement Noise at the Source," Illing- worth and Rodkin, Inc., of Petaluma, California, worked with the objectives of (1) develop- ing rational procedures for measuring tire-pavement noise and (2) demonstrating applica- bility of the procedures through testing of in-service pavements. To accomplish these objectives, the researchers (1) reviewed current practices, approaches, and methods used for measuring tire-pavement noise in close proximity of the tire; (2) conducted tests to evalu- ate candidate methods and select the most promising test method; (3) examined the pa- rameters associated with the selected test method to identify appropriate parameter limits; and (4) conducted measurements on in-service pavements to demonstrate applicability of the selected method to different pavement types. Based on this review and analysis of test results, the research suggested a procedure for measuring tire-pavement noise using the sound-intensity method. The test procedure will be particularly useful to highway agencies in considering noise issues because it provides an appropriate means for (1) measuring and rating tire-pavement noise levels on existing pavements, (2) evaluating new pavements incorporating noise-mitigating features, and (3) identifying design and construction fea- tures associated with different noise levels. Appendixes A through D contained in the research agency's final report provide detailed information on the literature review, the experimental program, data analysis, and demon-

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stration testing of the suggested method. These appendixes are not published herein, but are available online at http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=9956. These appendixes are titled as follows: Appendix A: Review of Literature Appendix B: Test Evaluation of Candidate Methods and Recommendation for Test Procedure Development Appendix C: Results of Test Parameter Evaluation Appendix D: Demonstration Testing of OBSI Procedure

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Background 3 Research Objectives and Scope 3 Research Approach 4 Chapter 2 Literature Search 4 Description of the Review 5 Remarks on Test Procedure Development 7 Chapter 3 Evaluation of Alternative Test Methods 7 Overview of Evaluation Testing 7 Summary of the CPX and OBSI Test Results 9 Recommendation of an At-the-Source Measurement Method 11 Chapter 4 Evaluation of OBSI Test Parameters 11 Introduction 11 Description of Field Measurements 11 Parameters Evaluated 11 Measurement Sites 11 Measurement Protocol 12 Meteorological Conditions 12 Results of Parameter Investigation 12 Run-to-Run Repeatability of Baseline Condition 13 Test Tire (SRTT versus Dunlop) 14 Environmental Variables 14 Systematic Vehicle and Test Execution Variables 15 Test Vehicle 16 Fixture Configuration (Single Probe versus Dual Probe) 16 Data Quality Criteria 16 Recommendations on Parameter Limits 17 Chapter 5 Demonstration Testing of OBSI Procedure 17 Introduction 17 Description of Field Measurements 17 Measurement Sites 17 Measurement Protocol 18 Meteorological Conditions 19 Data Reduction and Analysis 19 Data Reduction 19 Data Analysis

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20 Results and Discussion 20 Normalized SPB and CPB Data versus OBSI 23 Prediction of SPB Data from OBSI Data 27 Test Tires 27 Summary 29 Chapter 6 Conclusions, Recommendations, and Suggested Research 29 Conclusions 29 Recommendations 30 Test Procedure Implementation and Enhancement 30 Other Recommendations 30 Suggested Research 31 References 32 Attachment Proposed Method of Test for Measurement of Tire-Pavement Noise Using the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) Method 36 Appendixes A, B, C, and D