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13 CHAPTER THREE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR PLANNING FUNCTIONAL AREA DEFINITION In addition, GPS software and hardware, along with inter- operable software, hastens the early development of the 3D The planning functional area is primarily responsible for model by creation of the DTM with fewer human resources project initiation and feasibility study as well as collecting than previously required for surveying. data for the design functional area for decision making. Daniel Streett of the New York State DOT describes its The New York State DOT (NYSDOT) performs a best functional area as a pre-design unit that collects data for the practice in this functional area by creating a 3D terrain model development of project alternatives. of the project's surface. This practice is efficient because it serves two main purposes that reduce input procedures and efforts internally, externally, and across the project's life PLANNING FUNCTION DELIVERABLES cycle. Responses to the survey questionnaire revealed the deliver- able types or datasets shown in Table 2 as being received, Internally: The 3D terrain model is passed to the design processed, or sent through the planning functional area. functional area where the balance of the project's design Responses are indicated by two numbers: response count is implemented (added to). This reduces redundant data followed by percentage of total responses for the functional extraction from the terrain model into additional itera- area. tions of computer-aided design (CAD) files (only layers are added). For example, according to Table 2, 18 agencies reported Externally: The 3D terrain model is eventually shared receiving location survey data, 15 agencies reported that they with the contractor, allowing them to perform jobsite process or generate (originate) these data, and 15 agencies layout functions electronically and allowing the con- reported that these data are transferred to another functional tractor to produce its own set of cross sections. This area for use. reduces DOT resources required to plot and print cross- section plans. Resources are saved on the contractor's Also included in the responses shown in Table 2 are side because it can utilize the 3D terrain model for GPS responses inserted into the survey's open-ended text boxes layout and machine grading control. titled as "Other" indicating additional information/data Life cycle: The 3D terrain model acts as the shell for a received, processed, generated, or sent from the planning 3D design model that can follow the project's life-cycle functional area. The questionnaire is included for review in stages acting as an information repository (allowing Appendix A, and tabulated results of the survey are available input and extraction of data throughout the project's life). in Appendix B. Case Study #1 NYSDOT ADVANCED PROCESSES Work-Flow Process Diagram. Figure 6 displays a data The advanced processes defined for the planning functional work-flow diagram as communicated from the NYSDOT area are derived from both literature review and case studies. case study. In this initial project stage, both of the DOT planning func- Software Applications Utilized. Table 3 displays the tions that were studied developed the process of creating software applications and data formats extracted from three-dimensional (3D) terrain models of the project site. the IDEF0 diagram for the NYSDOT planning func- This not only sets the stage for addition of the 3D design tional area. model in the successive functional area, but also is used in Hardware and Networks. A continuously operating ref- the creation of a digital terrain model (DTM) for eventually erence station (CORS) network is required to carry and sharing with the contractor. The contractor benefits by the measure GPS signals for verification and creation of ability to incorporate global positioning system (GPS)-enabled survey markers. earth-moving operations. Challenges and Process Adjustments.

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14 TABLE 2 The KYTC planning function work-flow process is shown DATA RECEIVED, PROCESSED/GENERATED, SENT FROM DOT PLANNING FUNCTIONAL AREAS in Figure 7 as a contrast. Advanced processes internally include Extensible Markup Language (XML) that is Data Type Receive Process/Generate Send used whenever possible for data export and import Location 1878% 1565% 1565% Traffic 1774% 2087% 1461% between software applications. Environmental 1461% 1252% 1357% Software Applications Utilized. Table 4 displays the Survey 1148% 939% 730% software applications and data formats extracted from Other Data: Roadway Characteristic 14% 14% the IDEF0 diagram for KYTC planning functional Materials Information 14% 14% area. Pavement Management 14% 14% 14% Hardware and Networks. Linux and Microsoft Win- Pavement Survey 14% 14% 14% Highway Features 14% dows 2003 Server networks are utilized. Highway Centerline 14% 14% 14% Challenges and Process Adjustments. KYTC reported From Outside Agencies 14% 14% the following challenges in the planning functional area: Traffic data printed from mainframe computer not NYSDOT reported difficulty with interfacing the software easily accessed or analyzed. applications Bentley Microstation and ESRI GIS (geographic An increase in network security that often restricts information system). access to needed data. In-house personnel who have limited software skills. Case Study #2 Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Processing time for statewide traffic models that appears excessive. Work-Flow Process Diagram. Figure 7 shows a data An interoperability between software applications. work-flow diagram for a planning functional area (source: Inconsistencies with the overall systems graphical Case Study KYTC). user interface (GUI). FIGURE 6 NYSDOT data work-flow diagram for planning functional area. TABLE 3 SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS AND DATA FORMATS USED BY NYSDOT PLANNING FUNCTIONAL AREA Application Software Application-Vendor Data File Formats ROW Mapping InRoads--Bentley Open CL Control InRoads--Bentley Open Transition Control InRoads--Bentley Open Surface Layer Elevations InRoads--Bentley Open InRoads--Bentley DTM Features Open GEOPAK--Bentley GIS ArcView--ESRI Proprietary/Open File Storage ProjectWise--Bentley Proprietary CAD MicroStation--Bentley Proprietary Operations/Maintenance Asset M/AMS--AASHTO Open Inventory

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15 FIGURE 7 KYTC data work-flow diagram for planning functional area.

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16 TABLE 4 SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS AND DATA FORMATS USED BY KYTC PLANNING FUNCTIONAL AREA Application Software Application-Vendor Data File Formats Infrastructure Asset Management--GIS HIS-EXOR Corp. Proprietary/Open Map Layers Oracle Highways--Oracle Spreadsheet Excel--Microsoft Proprietary Desktop Database Access--Microsoft Proprietary GIS ArcGIS--ESRI Proprietary File Management Internal--KYTC Open Historical Estimating Bidhistory.com--HCSS Proprietary CAD TransCAD--Caliper Corp. Proprietary CAD Microstation--Bentley Open Document Management Adobe Professional--Adobe Proprietary Engineering/Economic Analysis HERSST--FHWA Open Highway Performance Monitoring System HPMS--FHWA Proprietary Text Documents Word--Microsoft Proprietary