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17 CHAPTER FOUR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR DESIGN FUNCTIONAL AREA DEFINITION FDOT performs advanced processes in the design func- tional area as follows: The design functional area receives inputs from the planning function for the purposes of producing the scope of the The development of a project compact disc (CD) contain- planned facility and deciding final parameters and ele- ing all the design documents and deliverables required for ments from the alternatives input. At NYSDOT this includes their electronic bid letting process. 3D design models, specifications, and contract documents As the CD gets processed between the design and pro- including bid and proposal documents that are passed for- curement functional areas, their process enables checks ward to the procurement function. for completeness, compliance with statutes and direc- tives, versioning, and QA. DESIGN FUNCTION DELIVERABLES Case Study #1 NYS DOT Responses to the survey questionnaire revealed the deliver- able types or datasets shown in Table 5 as being received, Work-Flow Process Diagram. Figure 6 (page 14) shows processed, or sent through the design functional area. a data work-flow diagram for design functional area. Responses are indicated by two numbers: response count fol- Software Applications Utilized. Table 6 displays the lowed by percentage of total responses for the functional area. software applications and data formats extracted from the IDEF0 diagram for NYSDOT design functional area (see Figure 8). ADVANCED PROCESSES Hardware and Networks. Microsoft Windows 2003 Server networks are utilized. NYSDOT performs a best practice in the design functional area Challenges and Process Adjustments. The NYSDOT by creating a 3D design model of the project. This practice reported the following barriers and challenges to is efficient as it serves two main purposes that reduce input advanced processes implementation: procedures and efforts internally, externally, and across the Justification of efficient process change compared project life cycle. with cheaper, but less efficient, processes. Development of functional area culture or mindsets Internally: The 3D design model is passed to the pro- to make efficiency changes, specifically 3D design curement, construction, and O&M functional areas and modeling. where design data are extracted for the deliverables in Proprietary file formats that prevent efficient data those functional areas, thereby reducing redundant exchange between software applications, specifically resource input and increasing accuracy within the in regard to DTMs. organization. Externally: The 3D design model is shared with the Case Study #2 FDOT contractor, allowing technology-savvy individuals to perform virtual construction [4D (three dimensions Work-Flow Process Diagram. Figure 9 shows a data plus construction project scheduling) CAD scheduling work-flow diagram for design functional area. and virtual reality constructability review] and 5D Software Applications Utilized. Table 7 displays the (three dimensions plus construction project estimate) software applications and data formats extracted from CAD estimating, thereby reducing redundant resource the IDEF0 diagram for FDOT design functional area. input and increasing accuracy within the external proj- Hardware and Networks. Linux and Microsoft Win- ect organizations. dows 2003 Server Networks are utilized. Life cycle: The 3D design model acts as the shell for a Challenges and Process Adjustments. FDOT reported the 3D design model that can follow the project's life- following barrier and challenge to advanced processes cycle stages, acting as an information repository by implementation: allowing input and extraction of data throughout the State statute required for electronic signature substitute project's life. for engineer's plan stamp.

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18 TABLE 5 DATA RECEIVED, PROCESSED/GENERATED, SENT FROM DOT DESIGN FUNCTIONAL AREAS Data Type Receive Process/Generate Send Survey Boundary 2191% 1565% 1461% Elevation Survey 2296% 1774% 1461% Drawings 1565% 2296% 1565% Supplemental Specs 1878% 2191% 1565% Pay Item Quantities 1774% 23100% 1878% Other Data: Environmental 14% 14% 14% 3D CAD Models 14% 14% Standard Drawings 14% 14% 14% Environmental Mapping 14% Traffic Data 312% 14% Highway Design Manual 14% 14% Surface Design 14% Subsurface 14% 14% Hydrologic Design 14% 14% Plan Preparation Guide 14% 14% Surface Design 14% Bridge Plans 14% 14% Instructional Bulletins 14% 14% Qualified Products List 14% 14% 14% Electrical Design 14% Landscape Design 14% TABLE 6 SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS AND DATA FORMATS USED BY NYSDOT DESIGN FUNCTIONAL AREA Application Software Application--Vendor Data File Formats Design Engineering InRoads--Bentley Open/Proprietary Design Graphics MicroStation--Bentley Closed/Proprietary Terrain Cross--Sections GEOPAK--Bentley Closed/Proprietary Pay Item Quantity Database Oracle Open/Proprietary

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19 FIGURE 8 NYSDOT data work-flow diagram for design functional area. FIGURE 9 FDOT data work-flow diagram for design functional area.

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20 TABLE 7 SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS AND DATA FORMATS USED BY FDOT DESIGN FUNCTIONAL AREA Function Software Application--Vendor Data Format Structural Design/Design Engineering PEDDS--FDOT Open Structural Design/Design Engineering MicroStation--Bentley Proprietary/Open Structural Design Atlas Proprietary/Open Structural Design MathCad Proprietary/Open Design Engineering Indexer Proprietary/Open Design Engineering Journaler Proprietary/Open Design Engineering SheetIndexer Proprietary/Open Design Engineering CAICE Proprietary/Open Design Engineering GEOPAK Proprietary/Open Design Engineering TIMS--FDOT Proprietary/Open Design Engineering MultiLine Earthwork Proprietary/Open Design Engineering Descartes Proprietary/Open Design Engineering CANCOGO Proprietary/Open Design Engineering GDM QC Proprietary/Open Design Engineering GUIDSIGN Proprietary/Open Design Engineering AGI32 Proprietary/Open Design Engineering AutoCAD Civil--Autodesk Proprietary/Open Design Engineering AUTOTURN Proprietary/Open Design Engineering SiteMenu Proprietary/Open Design Engineering Office 2003--Microsoft Proprietary