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42 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Andrews, S. and S. Geiger, Quantity Manager/GEI Barfield, W. and T.A. Dingus, Human Factors in Intelligent Administrator. Transportation Systems [Online]. Available: http://www. erlbaum.com/ME2/dirmod.asp?sid=28807ECF50FE49F0 Quantity commands are used to store and manage pay item 837125BE640E681F&nm=Books&type=eCommerce& information, quantity measurement formulas, and convert geo- mod=CommerceProductCatalog&mid=CD22EA0F1189 metric measurements of an InRoads DTM feature to a quantity. 49C09A932248C040F650&tier=3&id=2EA90C9131F5 4FEF93A4C13A44F2B7FD&itemid = 0-8058-1434-5 Andrews, S. and S. Geiger, Moving to 2004 Edition and [accessed Feb. 27, 2007]. Future NYSCOD Standards Plans, 2004. The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program is a Topics covered include standards and conventions cooperative effort by government, private industry, and aca- (e.g., developing comprehensive standards and conventions demia to apply advanced technology to the task of resolving for all engineering content, taking full advantage of latest the problems of surface transportation. The objective is to software capabilities) and resources (e.g., developing and improve travel efficiency and mobility, enhance safety, con- managing engineering resources for all applications). serve energy, provide economic benefits, and protect the environment. The current demand for mobility has exceeded Annulis, H.M., C. Gaudet, and J.C. Carr, Opportunities for the available capacity of the roadway system. Because the Change: The Geospatial Workforce Readiness Scorecard, highway system cannot be expanded, except in minor ways, 2005. the available capacity must be used more efficiently to han- dle the increased demand. ITS applies advanced information Workforce readiness refers to the ability of a company to processing, communication, sensing, and computer control have the necessary institutional and managerial components technologies to the problems of surface transportation. Con- to adapt to new workforce needs. For the geospatial indus- siderable research and development efforts will be required try, barriers and success factors related to workforce readi- to produce these new technologies and to convert technolo- ness are critically important, given the shortage of qualified gies developed in the defense and space programs to solve geospatial employees within the industry. Using the re- surface transportation problems. search methodology from Jim Collins' bestseller Good to Great, the University of Southern Mississippi's Work- Brthel, F. and J. Woxenius, "Developing Intermodal Trans- place Learning and Performance Center conducted a work- port for Small Flows over Short Distances," Transporta- force readiness study to identify the barriers and success tion Planning and Technology, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2005, pp. factors for workforce development for geospatial organiza- 403424. tions. The results of this study outline some of the criteria necessary for successful change readiness and have led to The purpose of this paper is to compare the capabilities of the development of the Geospatial Workforce Readiness conventional European intermodal transport, with special Scorecard. reference to the competitiveness in markets with small flows over short distances, and to explore innovative concepts. Barbara, D., Mobile Computing and Databases--A Survey, Using a technological systems approach, key functions are 1999. identified as being the inducement and blocking mechanisms that affect the development and diffusion path of these small The emergence of powerful portable computers, along flows over short distances (SFSD) system, providing a tool with advances in wireless communication technologies, has for empirical delineation of the system. These concepts are made mobile computing a reality. Among the applications illustrated and analyzed through a case study of the Swedish that are finding their way to the market of mobile computing-- development project Light-combi. those that involve data management hold a prominent position. In the past few years, there has been a tremendous surge of Baysden, C., "State Paid $152.6M More Than Contracted research in the area of data management in mobile comput- Amount for Roadwork," Triangle Business Journal, Dec. ing. This research has produced interesting results in areas 17, 2004. such as data dissemination over limited bandwidth channels, location-dependent querying of data, and advanced inter- Raleigh road construction projects completed by contrac- faces for mobile computers. This paper is an effort to survey tors for the North Carolina DOT over the past five years cost these techniques and to classify this research in a few broad taxpayers $152.6 million more than the amount of the win- areas. ning bids.

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43 Bebee, B.R., G.A. Mack, and I. Shafi, Distributed Meta- Bentley, "Bentley OnSite: Stakeout," 2007 [Online]. Avail- data Objects Using RDF [Online]. Available: http:// able from ftp://ftp2.bentley.com/dist/collateral/Web/Civil/ csdl.computer.org/dl/proceedings/wetice/1999/0365/00/ Bentley_OnSite_Stakeout.ppt. 03650325.pdf. This is a PowerPoint presentation on Bentley OnSite, This presents RDF representation of distributed Meta- which is a software product that connects the "last mile" data. In the context of information resources, metadata are between the design office and the construction site. data about resources. They describe the properties and attributes of an information resource. Operations on the Botterell, A., Common Alerting Protocol, v. 1.0. 2004 [On- metadata can be as important as operations on the resource line]. Available: http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/ content itself. The experimental application showed that a emergency/. RDF representation is suitable for metadata management. All of the information of the C++ metadata object accessible This document is a Committee Specification of the Emer- by means of the CORBA interface was defined within the gency Management Technical Committee. The Common RDF representation. Alerting Protocol (CAP) provides an open, non-proprietary digital message format for all types of alerts and notifications. Begley, E.F., M.E. Palmer, and K.A. Reed, Semantic Mapping Key benefits of CAP will include reduction of costs and opera- Between IAI ifcXML and FIATECH AEX Models for Cen- tional complexity by eliminating the need for multiple custom trifugal Pumps, National Institute of Standards and Tech- software interfaces to the many warning sources and dissemi- nology, Gaithersburg, Md., 2005. nation systems involved in all-hazard warning. An international working group of more than 130 emergency managers and This report describes a semantic mapping between two information technology and telecommunications experts con- extensible markup language (XML) specifications describing vened in 2001 and adopted the specific recommendations of the a single type of equipment that is used in heating, ventilation, National Science and Technology Council report as a point of air conditioning, refrigeration (HVAC/R) and other types of departure for the design of a CAP. systems (e.g., the centrifugal pump). Boyd, A., J. Caton, A. Singleton, P. Bromley, and C. Yorks, Bellwood, T., UDDI Version 2.04 API Specification, 2002 TCRP Report 86: Transportation Security Vol. 8: Conti- [Online]. Available: http://uddi.org/pubs/Programmers nuity of Operations Planning Guidelines for Transporta- API-V2.04-Published-20020719.htm. tion Agencies, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2005, 86 pp. This document describes the programming interface and expected behaviors of all instances of the Universal Descrip- The project that is the subject of this report was a part tion, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) registry. of the TCRP study conducted by TRB with the approval of the Governing Board of the NRC. Such approval reflects the Bentley, NYSDOT's Bentley Inspector/Stakeout Pilot Projects. Governing Board's judgment that the project concerned was appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources The pilot objectives discussed are: integrating project's of the NRC. engineering applications (by Bentley, Leica, and InfoTech); electronically linking the New York State DOT standards, Brown, C., P. Balepur, and P.L. Mokhtarian, "Communica- policies, specifications, and engineering data; determining tion Chains: A Methodology for Assessing the Effects of the required revisions to specifications, standards, and proce- the Internet on Communication and Travel," Journal of dures; assisting in the testing and development; and deter- Urban Technology, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2005, pp. 7198. mining the policy and procedures. The methodology proposed in this study offers a practical Bentley, "ProjectWise Integration Server Resource Center" middle ground between no data and perfect data on causal [cited June 21, 2007] [Online]. Available: http://www. linkages. Specifically, for a given Internet activity, it simply bentley.com/enUS/Products/ProjectWise+Integration+ asks the respondent to identify its causal antecedent and its Server/Resource+Center.h. likely communication consequences by checking off the appropriate responses from a list. This presentation highlights the challenges associated with managing, finding, and sharing information efficiently and pro- CAD Applications supported by NavisWorks [Online]. vides an introduction to information management tools, com- Available: http://www.s2solutions.biz/formats.html. paring the benefits of an iPod and iTunes for managing music with the benefits of the ProjectWise system for managing CAD The table provides an extensive list of the CAD applica- and geospatial content, project data, and office documents. tions currently supported by NavisWorks, along with any

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44 additional information that may be necessary to review files Cheng, J., M. Gruninger, R.D. Sriram, and K.H. Law, in NavisWorks. Process Specification Language for Project Scheduling Information Exchange, 2003. Caltrans, Caltrans Integration Study, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, 2003. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 briefly intro- duces PSL and discusses the motivation and the major compo- This best practice review provides a summary of the nents of PSL. Mapping the concepts between PSL and project financial information management practices of organizations management applications is discussed in Section 3. Section 4 similar to Caltrans. describes the parser and the wrappers developed for the ex- change of project scheduling information using PSL. Section 5 Caltrans, Caltrans Integration Study, California Department discusses the potential use of PSL for consistency checking of Transportation, Sacramento, 2004. using a logic-based reasoning tool. Examples on information exchange and consistency checking are given in Section 6 to This document, the Caltrans Integration Study Financial demonstrate the current prototype environment. Finally, Sec- Systems Strategic Plan, represents the final deliverable of the tion 7 summarizes the results described in this paper. Caltrans Integration Study. Cheng, J. and K.H. Law, Using Process Specification Captaris Incorporated, South Carolina DOT Deploys Language for Project Information Exchange, Civil and Paperless Procurement System with Captaris Workflow, Environmental Engineering Department, Stanford Univer- Bellevue, Wash., 2005 [Online]. Available: http://www. sity, Stanford, Calif. captaris.com/news_and_events/press_releases/print_04_ 18_ 2005.html. This study evaluates the applicability of the PSL for exchanging project information among different applica- Captaris, Inc. (NASDAQ: CAPA), a leading provider of tions. PSL has been initiated by NIST and is emerging as a Business Information Delivery solutions, announced on standard exchange language for process information in the April 18, 2005, that the South Carolina DOT Procurement manufacturing industry. In this paper, they explore how PSL Division has deployed Captaris Workflow to automate its can be extended for exchanging project information for con- procurement system and help reach its goal to become a struction applications. paperless operation. Cheng, J., M. Gruninger, R.D. Sriram, and K.H. Law, Process Chappell, D. and L. Liu, "Web Services Brokered Notification Specification Language for Project Scheduling Informa- 1.3," 2006 [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open.org/ tion Exchange, (4), 2003 [Online]. Available: http://www. wsn/wsn-ws_topics-1.3-spec-os.pdf. mel.nist.gov/msidlibrary/doc/psl_pie.pdf. The event-driven, or notification-based, interaction pattern Many project scheduling and management software is a commonly used pattern for inter-object communications. systems are being employed in the construction industry. Examples exist in many domains; for example, in publish/ Standards-based translation is one way to achieve interoper- subscribe systems provided by Message Oriented Middle- ability. This study discusses the applicability of the PSL for ware vendors, or in system and device management domains. exchanging project scheduling information among different This notification pattern is increasingly being used in a web applications. PSL was initiated by NIST and is emerging as services context. a standard exchange language for process information in the manufacturing industry. This paper explores how PSL can Cheng, J. and K.H. Law, Using Process Specification Lan- be used for exchanging project scheduling information guage for Project Information Exchange [Online]. Avail- among software programs in project management. Further- able: http://www.mel.nist.gov/msidlibrary/doc/psl_pie.pdf. more, it investigates how PSL could be utilized to reason about potential conflicts and to perform consistency check- There are many project scheduling and management pro- ing on project scheduling information. grams employed in the construction industry. Standards-based translation is one way to achieve interoperability. This study Chisholm, G., Transit Cooperative Research Program, evaluates the applicability of the Process Specification Lan- Mitretek Systems and TransTech Management Inc., guage (PSL) for exchanging project information among dif- Washington, D.C., 2002. ferent applications. PSL has been initiated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and is emerg- This report includes a clarification of supply-chain terms, ing as a standard exchange language for process information discussion of the impact of asset management decisions on in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, they explore parts and inventory management needs, and strategies for how PSL can be extended for exchanging project informa- streamlining the supply chain. Non-transit fleets with practices tion for construction applications. identified for emulation include utility fleets, a state DOT

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45 fleet, private-sector motor carriers, and the U.S. military. Clment, L., Introduction to Next Generation Trns-port and This report may be used by senior managers, operations man- Agile Methodology, 2007. agers, materials managers, asset managers, inventory profes- sionals, and procurement officers. The priorities give the Information Technology team an obtainable goal for each sprint. The result is a better, higher- Chisholm, G., E-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for quality solution. The agile methodology is an ongoing part of Public Transportation. Vol. 2: Application Service Provider the future maintenance and enhancement of Trns-port prod- Implementation Guidelines, Mitretek Systems and Trans- ucts, and as such should enhance future testing and develop- portation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2002. ment to meet the needs of the customers. Application Service Provider Implementation Guide- Clment, L., Next Generation Trns-port Preconstruction lines presents the results of an investigation into the use of Progress, 2007. application service providers (ASPs) and thin client com- puting technologies by transit agencies. The characteristics Clment, L., Trns-port Platform Component Status by Year, and market position of ASPs were investigated, and the 2007. strengths and weaknesses of this computing service model were identified. A similar investigation of thin client com- Committee Research Problem Statements [Online]. Available: puting was conducted and reported in this volume. This http://gulliver.trb.org/committees/rps2005/AFB30.pdf. report may be used by senior managers, operations man- agers, maintenance managers, customer service managers, An important function of the TRB is to stimulate research and schedulers. that addresses problems facing the transportation commu- nity. In support of this function, TRB technical committees Clment, L., UDDI Version 2.01 Operator's Specification, identify problems and develop and disseminate research 2002 [Online]. Available: http://uddi.org/pubs/Operators- problem statements for use by practitioners, researchers, and V2.01-Published-20020719.htm. others. This document describes the behavior and operational "Connecting Surveyors, Designers, Inspectors, and Contrac- parameters required of all UDDI Node Operators. tors," BE Magazine. Clment, L., UDDI Version 2.03 Replication Specification, For the New York State Department of Transportation 2002 [Online]. Available: http://uddi.org/pubs/Replication- (NYSDOT), the transition to Bentley's 3D methodology not V2.03-Published-20020719.htm. only represented a milestone in design/engineering automa- tion, but also led to a complete reevaluation of the process This document describes the data replication process and NYSDOT had been using to create project data--from 2D programmatic interface required to achieve complete data drawing production to 3D feature-based modeling. replication between UDDI Operators. Conroy, P., Institutional, Organizational and Market Aspects Clment, L., Trns-port Module Support Status, 2006. of Successful ITS Deployment: A Case Study Analysis, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of Califor- The Warranty Reporting Period end dates shown earlier nia, Berkeley, 2003. do not apply to errors in previously working functionality. Beginning with the June 2005 releases, errors in previously This research continues a previous study to explore key working functionality (except those resulting from technol- aspects of successful intelligent transportation systems (ITS) ogy upgrades) are warranted for as long as the release is deployment within existing institutional, organizational, and supported, up to a maximum of 24 months. market environments. The researcher developed three addi- tional case studies of successful ITS deployment in the Clment, L., Trns-port Transportation Software Manage- United States and Europe, and revisited one case from the ment Solution, American Association of State Highway previous work. Results from literature searches and surveys and Transportation Officials, Gainesville, Fla., 2006. were analyzed, and findings on institutional, organizational, and market factors are presented. The client/server Trns-port modules have a multitiered architecture. Each module uses one or more types of server Conroy, P., H. Benouar, and J.-L. Ygnace, ITS Deployment: that can be deployed in many different configurations. There Global Thinking and Local Action--A Case Study, Univer- are performance and server availability factors that should be sity of California Transportation Center, Berkeley, 2003. considered when planning an agency's server configuration. This section describes the server types, server requirements, This paper explores institutional and organizational fac- configuration options, and example configurations. tors related to deployment of ITS. The researchers conducted

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46 a comprehensive Internet/literature search on the status of Decker, S., P. Mitra, and S. Melnik, Framework for the ITS programs in Europe and the United States, interviewed Semantic Web: An RDF Tutorial, 2000 [Online]. Available: principals involved in ITS deployment both at the policy http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/ic/2000/06/w6068.pdf. and project levels and from the public and private sectors, and developed four case studies of successful ITS deploy- RDF tutorial with its built-in notion of resources and ment. Results from the Internet/literature search and responses relationship between resources, RDF aims to fulfill the from the survey and interviews were analyzed to identify promise to populate the Web with machine-processable critical institutional and organizational factors for successful information. The simplicity of the RDF data model makes deployment and operation of ITS systems and services. The representing data straightforward, and more sophisticated methodology allowed for both a top-down (programs and representation languages such as the Unified Modeling policies) and bottom-up (project experiences) review and Language and Description Logics can be defined along analysis. with RDF. Cruikshank, D., Web CGM 2.0, 2005 [Online]. Available: DeMartini, T., A. Nadalin, C. Kaler, R. Monzillo, and http://www.oasisopen.org/committees/download.php/ P. Hallam-Baker, Web Services Security Rights Expression 15701/WebCGM-v2.0.pdf. Language (REL) Token Profile, 2004 [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open.org/wss/oasis-wss-rel-token-profile- This is a 200-page document that gives introduction of the 1.0.pdf. Web CGM and the concepts related and some new concepts such as the XML companion file and the DOM Document This document describes how to use ISO/IEC 21000-5 Object Model, and their relationship with the Web CGM Rights Expressions with the Web Services Security: SOAP Profile. Message Security [WS-Security] specification. Cruikshank, D., WebCGM Version 2.0, 2007 [Online]. Avail- Diewald, W., "New TRB Special Report: The Workforce able: http://docs.oasis-open.org/webcgm/v2.0/OS/webcgm- Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified v2.0.pdf. Workers for Transportation and Transit Agencies," TR News, No. 229, 2003, pp. 2730. WebCGM is a set of specifications targeted especially at the effective application of the ISO CGM:1999 standard to The study did not measure the shortfalls of labor force representation of two-dimensional (2D) graphical content supply; however, the committee examined strategies and within Web documents. made recommendations for transportation agencies to alter human resources activities--specifically, recruitment, train- Danzy, G.B., ProjectWise Collaboration Update. ing, retention, and succession management--to meet emerg- ing workforce challenges and to adjust to the labor market. ProjectWise Web Explorer Lite is a feature of Project- The study also addressed the leadership role of the federal Wise that allows web access to a ProjectWise System. government in this area. Dayhuff Group and Ohio Department of Transportation Dis- Dingley, A. and P. Shabajee, Use of RDF for Content Re- trict 2 Office, PS&E and Pre-Bid Design Specification and purposing on the ARKive Project [Online]. Available: Requirements Document, The Dayhuff Group, Worthing- http://csdl.computer.org/dl/proceedings/icalt/2001/1013/0 ton, Ohio, 2001 [Online]. Available: http://www.dot.state. 0/10130199.pdf. oh.us/dist2/DocImaging/Workflow/dotfs.pdf. This paper reports on prototype systems to provide an This document is intended to overview the application infrastructure for the dynamic and flexible repurposing of requirements and provide a framework and roadmap for the multimedia resources held in a large database. The database, final application(s), system, and implementation specifica- called ARKive, holds film, stills, audio, and text about glob- tions for Phase I. This is a "living" document and is subject ally endangered and native U.K. animal and plant species as to user and provider review and modification. well as their habitats. It aims to offer a wide range of users customized access to both the core multimedia data and full Decker, S. and S. Melnik, The Semantic Web: The Roles of integration of core data with external educational resources. XML and RDF, 2000 [Online]. Available: http://csdl. Aspects covered in the paper include designing for repurpos- computer.org/dl/mags/ic/2000/05/w5063.pdf. ing with respect to specific audiences, storage, and querying using RDF, XSL, SMIL, and related technologies. The ad- XML and RDF are the current standards for establishing vantages of the approaches taken are discussed and key semantic interoperability on the Web, but XML addresses issues are highlighted. only document structure. RDF better facilitates interopera- tion because it provides a data model that can be extended to Dubray, J.-J., S. St Amand, and M.J. Martin, ebXML Business address sophisticated ontology representation techniques. Process Specification Schema Technical Specification

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47 Appendices v2.0.4, 2006 [Online]. Available: docs. oasis- Eklund, P., OntoRama: Browsing RDF Ontologies Using open.org/ebxml-bp/2.0.4/OS/spec/ebxmlbp-v2.0.4-Spec- a Hyperbolic-Style Browser, 2002 [Online]. Available: os-Appendices-en.pdf. http://csdl.computer.org/dl/proceedings/cw/2002/1862/00/ 18620405.pdf. This document has appendices for OASIS Standard and an introduction of the appendices such as business service This paper presents a Java-based hyperbolic-style interface, manual or implicit business transactions, and han- browser designed to render RDF files as structured ontologi- dling recursive and optional activities. cal maps. The program was motivated by the need to browse the content of a web-accessible ontology server: WEBKB-2. Dubray, J.-J., S. St Amand, and M.J. Martin, ebXML The ontology server contains descriptions of more than Business Process Specification Schema Technical Specifi- 74,500 object types derived from the WORDNET 1.7 lexical cation v2.0.4, 2006 [Online]. Available: docs.oasis-open. database and can be accessed using RDF syntax. Such a org/ebxml-bp/2.0.4/OS/spec/ebxmlbp-v2.0.4-Spec-os- structure creates complications for hyperbolic-style displays. en.pdf. In WEBKB-2 there are 140 stable ontology link types and a hyperbolic display needs to filter and iconify the view so This document defines a standards-based business different link relations can be distinguished in multilink process foundation that promotes the 45 automation and pre- views. The browsing tool, ONTORAMA, is therefore moti- dictable exchange of Business Collaboration definitions vated by two possibly interfering aims: (1) to display up to using XML. 10 times the number of nodes in a hyperbolic-style view rather than using a conventional graphics display; (2), to render the Durusau, P., Open Document Format for Office Applications, ontology with multiple links comprehensible in that view. 2006 [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open.org/office/ v1.1/OS/OpenDocument-v1.1.pdf. Enterprise Resource Planning, Enterprise Resource Planning System [Online]. Available: http://www.durhamnc.gov/ This is the specification of the Open Document Format for departments/bms/05cip/VI-pro.pdf. Office Applications (OpenDocument) format, an open, XML-based file format for office applications, based on This project includes the acquisition and implementation OpenOffice.org XML [OOo]. of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system that will replace the current financial accounting and reporting, utility Durusau, P., Reference Model for Service Oriented Architec- billing, and human resources systems. The ERP system will ture, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open.org/ be a fully integrated application that will support a wide range soa-rm/v1.0/soa-rm.pdf. of business functions working from centralized information. It will provide a comprehensive management information This Reference Model for Service Oriented Architecture solution that will simplify reporting and analysis. The project (SOA) is an abstract framework for understanding signifi- also includes the automation and standardization of business cant entities and relationships between them within a practices as a primary component of system implementation. service-oriented environment, and for the development of consistent standards or specifications supporting that envi- Fallon, K.K. and M.E. Palmer, Capital Facilities Information ronment. It is based on unifying concepts of SOA and may Handover Guide, National Institute of Standards and Tech- be used by architects developing specific service-oriented nology, Gaithersburg, Md., 2006. architectures or in training and explaining SOA. A reference model is not directly tied to any standards, technologies, or All developed nations invest a substantial portion of their other concrete implementation details. It does seek to pro- gross domestic product in capital facilities--their planning, vide common semantics that can be used unambiguously design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and across and between different implementations. The relation- decommissioning. There is increasing pressure on the global ship between the reference model and particular architec- capital facilities industry to perform more efficiently. Since tures, technologies, and other aspects of SOA is illustrated the late 1990s, a number of studies have addressed this issue in Figure 1. Although service orientation may be a popular and provided analyses and recommendations. concept found in a broad variety of applications, this refer- ence model focuses on the field of software architecture. The Fallon, K.K. and M.E. Palmer, Capital Facilities Informa- concepts and relationships described may apply to other tion Handover Guide, Part 1, National Institute of Stan- service environments; however, this specification makes dards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 2006. no attempt to completely account for use outside of the soft- ware domain. This guide is designed to address the first two challenges. It defines a methodology for defining the information require- Eisenhart, M. and P. Bercich, Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) ments for the full facility life cycle and then developing and GPS Specifications, Department of Transportation State of implementing an information handover plan for a specific Wyoming, Cheyenne, 2006. capital facility project.

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48 FIATECH, FIATECH Interoperability Projects Status paper records management across all facility life-cycle Roadmap (20052006), 2006. phases. Based on interviews and survey responses, $15.8 bil- lion in annual interoperability costs were quantified for the Fiscal Survey of States: National Governors Association, capital facilities industry in 2002. Of these costs, two-thirds National Association of State Budget Officers and Na- are borne by owners and operators, which incur most of these tional Governors Association, Washington, D.C., 2006. costs during ongoing facility operation and maintenance. In addition to the costs quantified, respondents indicated that The Fiscal Survey of States is published twice annually by there were additional significant inefficiency and lost oppor- the National Association of State Budget Officers and the tunity costs associated with interoperability problems that National Governors Association. The series was started in were beyond the scope of this analysis. Thus, the $15.8 bil- 1979. The survey presents aggregate and individual data on lion cost estimate developed in this study was probably a the states' general fund receipts, expenditures, and balances. conservative figure. Fornes, D., Accelerating Interoperability in Capital Projects, Grling, T., R. Gillholm, and A. Grling, "Reintroducing 2007 [Online]. Available: http://enr.construction.com/ Attitude Theory in Travel Behavior Research: The Valid- people/blogs/fornes/070507.asp. ity of an Interactive Interview Procedure to Predict Car Use," Transportation (the Netherlands), Vol. 25, No. 2, Accelerated Deployment of ISO 15926 (ADI) is a collab- 1998, pp. 129146. orative effort led by FIATECH to establish a universal plat- form for improving the interoperability in the life cycle of A methodological challenge is to develop methods that capital projects and facilities. satisfy the need in transport planning of accurately forecast- ing travel behavior. Drawing on a review of the current state Fujiia, S. and T. Grling, "Application of Attitude Theory for of attitude theory, it is argued that successfully forecasting Improved Predictive Accuracy of Stated Preference Meth- travel behavior relies on a distinction between planned, habit- ods in Travel Demand Analysis," Transport Research A: ual, and impulsive travel. Empirical illustrations are provided Policy & Practice, Vol. 37, No. 4, 2003, pp. 382402. in the form of stated-response data from two experiments investigating the validity of an interactive interview proce- The objective of this paper is to outline an alternative con- dure to predict household car use for different types of trips, ceptual framework for travel demand analysis that draws on either before or after participants were required to reduce use. attitude theory from social psychology. In line with this the- ory, stated choices are interpreted as behavioral intentions. Geiger, S., Unlocking Design Data, New York State Depart- The theory then explains why behavioral intention some- ment of Transportation, Albany, N.Y. times deviates from actual behavior. In an empirical demon- stration using panel data obtained from commuters (n = 903) Geyer, C., OASIS Forms CGM Member Section to Advanced before and after the opening of a new subway line in Kyoto, WebCGM Graphics Standard, 2004 [Online]. Available: Japan, support is obtained for several predictions about why http://www.oasisopen.org/news/oasis_news_08_04_04.pdf. behavioral intentions are, or are not, implemented. Gallaher, M.P., A.C. Connor, J.L. Dettbarn, Jr., and L.T. Gilday, An aggressive agenda built around advanced develop- AASHTOWare Standards & Guidelines Notebook, National ment and interoperability of the Web CGM Standard. Web Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., CGM is developed to accelerate the adoption, application, 2004. and implementation of the Computer Graphics Metaphile for the open interchange of structural graphical objects and their The Special Committee on Joint Development formed the attributes that provides a reliable method of publishing 2D Technical & Application Architecture Task Force to provide technical graphics on the web. standards and technical guidance for the development of AASHTOWare software products. The purpose of these Global Collaboration on Construction R&D Strategies, standards and guidelines was and is to maximize the return June 1516, 2005. on investment, improve the quality, and increase the useful- ness of the products. This report provides a record of the summit event that took place in Helsinki in June 2005. The background for the Gallaher, M.P., A.C. O'Connor, J.L. Dettbarn, Jr., and event and the study that preceded it are initially presented L.T. Gilday, Cost Analysis of Inadequate Interoperability and then the content of the summit is briefly described, in the U.S. Capital Facilities Industry, National Institute allowing the reader to refer to the annex for fuller detail of the of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 2004. presentations and group work that took place. This study includes design, engineering, facilities manage- Godik, S. and T. Moses, eXtensible Access Control ment, and business processes software systems and redundant Markup Language (XACML) Errata 001, 2003 [Online].

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49 Available: http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/xacml/ declared as part of the web service interface. The declaration repository/errata-001.pdf. of the web services resource's properties represents a projec- tion of or a view on the resource's state. This document contains a list of errata against XACML OASIS Standard Version 1.0 that 28 have been approved by Harvey, F., W. Kuhn, H. Pundt, Y. Bishr, and C. Riedemann, the XACML Technical Committee. "Semantic Interoperability: A Central Issue for Sharing Geographic Information," The Annals of Regional Science, Godik, S. and T. Moses, eXtensible Access Control Markup Vol. 33, No. 2, 2004. Language (XACML) Version 1.0, 2003 [Online]. Available: http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/xacml/repository/ This paper presents an overview of semantic interoperabil- cs-xacml-core-01.pdf. ity and through case studies shows the breadth and depth of issues and approaches in different countries and at different This specification defines an XML schema for an extensi- levels of organizations. These cases illustrate the importance ble access-control policy language. of developing flexible approaches to practical data sharing problems that merge semantical with technical considerations. Gordon, M., An Introduction to RDF Technologies: Too Little Based on our examinations of semantic issues and approaches Too Soon, 2004 [Online]. Available: http://csdl2.computer. in ongoing research projects, we propose cognitive, com- org/comp/mags/ds/2004/08/o8005.pdf. puter science, and socio-technical frameworks for examining semantic interoperability. The Resource Description Framework is to the emerging semantic web what HTML is to the current World Wide Haydarlou, A.R., Using Semantic Web Technology for Self- Web. The semantic web is not a new web, but an extension Management of Distributed Object-Oriented Systems. of the current one; likewise, the Resource Description Frame- work is not a new HTML, but a framework for making logical Automated support for management of complex distributed assertions about resources on the web, including existing object-oriented systems is a challenge: self-management the HTML web pages. The semantics are in the connections goal. A self-management system needs to reason about the between assertions, which form a semantic web. behavior of the distributed entities in a system and act when necessary. The knowledge needed is multileveled: different Graham, S., D. Hull, and B. Murray, Web Services Base Notifi- levels of concepts and rules need to be represented. This cation 1.3, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open. paper explores the requirements that hold for representing org/wsn/wsn-ws_brokered_notification-1.3-spec-os.pdf. this knowledge in self-managed distributed object-oriented The event-driven, or notification-based, interaction pattern systems, and explores the potential of semantic web technol- is a commonly used pattern for inter-object communications. ogy in this context. A model for self-management knowledge Examples exist in many domains; for example, in publish/ and a simplified version of a real-life use case is used to illus- subscribe systems provided by Message Oriented Middle- trate the potential. ware vendors, or in system and device management domains. This notification pattern is increasingly being used in a web Helsinki Implementation Initiative, Global Collaboration on services context. Construction R&D Strategies: The Helsinki Implementa- tion Initiative, Helsinki, 2005. Graham, S., A. Karmarkar, J. Mischkinsky, I. Robinson, and I. Sedukhin, Web Services Resource 1.2, 2006 [On- This report provides a record of the summit event that took line]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open.org/wsrf/wsrf-ws_ place in Helsinki on June 1516, 2005. The background for resource-1.2-spec-os.pdf. the event and the study that preceded it are initially presented and then the content of the summit is briefly described, This specification defines a web services resource, which allowing the reader to refer to the annex for fuller detail of the describes the relationship between a web service and a presentations and group work that took place. resource in the web services resource framework. This docu- ment also defines the pattern by which resources are accessed Helsinki Implementation Initiative, Pre-Summit Study: Global through web services, and the means by which web services Synthesis Report, 2005. resources are referenced. This document presents summary data and a synthesis Graham, S. and J. Treadwell, Web Services Resource Proper- view from a comparison of 16 documents, which to some ties 1.2, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open. extent represent the industry-wide expressions of strategic org/wsrf/wsrf-ws_resource_properties-1.2-spec-os.pdf. intent from different countries around the world. This specification standardizes the means by which the Hollmann, J.K., Total Cost Management Framework, definition of the properties of a web services resource may be Morgantown, W. Va., AACE International, 2006.

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50 Horridge, M., H. Knublauch, A. Rector, R. Stevens, and indicates that integration of GIS, GAs, and CV greatly C. Wroe, A Practical Guide to Building OWL Ontologies enhances the highway development process. Using the Protege-OWL Plugin and CO-ODE Tools, The University of Manchester, Manchester, U.K., 2004. Johnson, J., B. Nilsson, F. Luise, A. Torne, J.-L. Loeuillet, L. Candy, M. Inderst, and D. Harris, The Future Systems This work was supported in part by the CO-ODE project Engineering Data Exchange Standard STEP AP-233: funded by the U.K. Joint Information Services Committee Sharing the Results of the SEDRES Project. and the HyOntUse Project (GR/S44686) funded by the U.K. Engineering and Physical Science Research Council and by Sharing design information during the systems engineer- 21XS067A from the National Cancer Institute. ing activities on large international projects within virtual enterprises faces many challenges, including working with This guide introduces the Protege-OWL plugin for cre- heterogeneous sets of systems engineering tools. The adop- ating OWL ontologies. Chapter 3 gives a brief overview of tion of neutral data exchange standards is one appropriate the OWL ontology language. Chapter 4 focuses on building approach now well advanced in areas such as structural design an OWL-DL ontology and using a Description Logic Rea- (computer-aided design or CAD). ESPRIT project 20496, soner to check the consistency of the ontology and auto- "SEDRES," has made significant progress in producing a matically compute the ontology class hierarchy. Chapter 6 neutral data exchange standard based on STEP (ISO-10303), describes some OWL constructs such as Value Restrictions embracing systems engineering design data. SEDRES stands and Enumerated Classes, which are not directly used in the for Systems Engineering Data Representation and Exchange main tutorial. Chapter 7 describes namespaces, importing Standardization. Cofunded by the European Commission and ontologies, and various features and utilities of the Protege- running from 19961999, SEDRES was initiated by Aerospa- OWL application. tiale, Alenia, British Aerospace, DASA, and Saab. Information Technology Company, Trns-port Transporta- Kessler, D.S., TCRP Synthesis 57: Computer-Aided Sched- tion Software Management Solution, American Associa- uling and Dispatch in Demand-Responsive Transit Ser- vices, Transportation Research Board, National Research tion of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Council, Washington, D.C., 2004, 87 pp. Gainesville, Fla., 2004. The scope of this synthesis is to (1) search out useful The client/server Trns-port modules have a multitiered archi- information on the use of computer-aided scheduling and tecture. Each module uses one or more types of server that can dispatch (CASD) in demand-responsive transit (DRT) ser- be deployed in many different configurations. There are perfor- vices, (2) develop an amalgamation or compendium of the mance and server availability factors that should be considered current knowledge and successful practices used in comput- when planning an agency's server configuration. It includes a erizing the functions necessary to efficiently and effectively description of the server types, server requirements, and config- operate such DRT services, and (3) report on measures used uration options, and provides example configurations. to resolve specific problems in planning and implementing CASD. The ultimate objective in compiling a considerable Jha, M.K., C. McCall, and P. Schonfeld, Using GIS, Genetic storehouse of information is to make this information avail- Algorithms, and Visualization in Highway Development, able to the public transit community. Private and nonprofit 2001 [Online]. Available: http://www.blackwell-synergy. organizations that are providing DRT services will similarly com/doi/abs/10.1111/0885-9507.00242. benefit from a review of these results. A model for highway development is presented, which Klein, M., Interpreting XML Documents via an RDF Schema uses geographic information systems (GIS), genetic algo- Ontology [Online]. Available: http://csdl.computer.org/dl/ rithms (GA), and computer visualization (CV). GIS serves as mags/ex/2001/02/x2026.pdf. a repository of geographic information and enables spatial manipulations and database management. GAs are used to This document proposes a procedure that transforms optimize highway alignments in a complex search space. ambiguous XML data into useful RDF statements. This pro- CV is a technique used to convey the characteristics of alter- cedure depends on an ontology that describes the meaning of native solutions, which can be the basis of decisions. The the data. proposed model implements GIS and GA to find an opti- mized alignment based on the minimization of highway costs. Klein, M., Tutorial: The Semantic Web, 2001 [Online]. Avail- CV is implemented to investigate the effects of intangible able: http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/ex/2001/02/x2026. parameters, such as unusual land and environmental charac- pdf. teristics not considered in optimization. Constrained optimiza- tion using GAs may be performed at subsequent stages if XML and RDF are different formalisms with their own necessary using feedback received from CVs. Implementa- purposes, and their roles in the realization of the semantic web tion of the model in a real highway project from Maryland vision will be different. XML aims to provide an easy-to-use

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51 syntax for web data. With it you can encode all kinds of data reduce the network traffic, provide an effective means of over- that are exchanged between computers, using XML schemas coming network latency, and perhaps most importantly, to prescribe the data structure. This makes XML a fundamen- through their ability to operate asynchronously and auton- tal language for the semantic web in the sense that many tech- omously of the process that created them, helps to construct niques will probably use XML as their underlying syntax. more robust and fault-tolerant. There is an introduction to software agents--the mobile as well as the stationary ones. Kratt, D., Design Memorandum No. 18-05, Department of All the benefits of mobile agents are explained and their Highway Design, 2005. impact on the design of distributed systems is demonstrated. This report concludes with a brief overview of some con- Electronic files submittal with the final contract plans temporary mobile agent systems. Kreger, H., Web Services Distributed Management: Manage- Lassila, O., Generating Rewrite Rules by Browsing RDF ment of Web Services, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://docs. Data, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://csdl.computer.org/ oasis-open.org/wsdm/wsdm-mows-1.1-spec-os-01.pdf. dl/proceedings/ruleml/2006/2652/00/26520051.pdf. The Web Services Distributed Management (WSDM) The OINK system presented in this paper allows users specifications, as declared in the committee charter, define access to RDF data via browsing and the system as a debug- (1) how management of any resource can be accessed via ging tool when building semantic web applications. OINK web services protocols management using web services, also allows users to interactively build queries in the and (2) management of the web services resources via the WILBURQL path query language merely by browsing their former management of web services. This document is the data; navigational paths are translated into path queries. web services distributed management specification defining management of web services. Law, K.H., "Applications of ICT Standards in Engineering," In Open ICT Ecosystems, National Institute of Standards Kreger, H., Web Services Distributed Management: Manage- and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 2006. ment Using Web Services Part 1, 2006 [Online]. Avail- The document explains the standards of software interop- able: http://docs.oasis-open.org/wsdm/wsdm-muws1-1.1- erability and demonstrates that it is not merely to exchange spec-os-01.pdf. data, but it has extended application functionalities. Management using web services (MUWS) enables man- Lawrence, K. and C. Kaler, WS-SecureConversation 1.3, agement of distributed information technology (IT) resources 2007 [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open.org/ws-sx/ using web services. Many distributed IT resources use dif- ws-secureconversation/200512/ws-secureconversation-1.3- ferent management interfaces. By leveraging web service os.pdf. technology, MUWS enables easier and more efficient man- agement of IT resources. This specification defines extensions that build on Web Services Security to provide a framework for requesting and Kreger, H., Web Services Distributed Management: Manage- issuing security tokens and to broker trust relationships. ment Using Web Services Part 2, 2006 [Online]. Avail- able: http://docs.oasis-open.org/wsdm/wsdm-muws2-1.1- Lee, R.W., Ed., Preparation and Transfer of Electronic spec-os-01.pdf. Engineering Data, New York State Department of Trans- portation, Albany, N.Y., 2005. This document, MUWS Part 2, builds on the foundation provided by MUWS Part 1. All of the normative text presented The purpose of this text is to remind all involved in the in MUWS Part 1 is considered normative text for MUWS design and/or delivery of capital projects for letting by the Part 2. All informational text presented in MUWS Part 1 is rel- department of the guidance regarding the preparation and evant informational text for MUWS Part 2. Compliance with transfer of electronic engineering data. MUWS Part 1 is required for every aspect of MUWS Part 2. Lim, J., A. Yoon, and C.-H. Sun, OntoSNP: Ontology Kukawka, A., IMC Monthly Project Status Report, Depart- Driven Knowledgebase for SNP, 2006 [Online]. Available: ment of Transportation, 2005. http://csdl.computer.org/dl/proceedings/ichit/2006/2674/02/ 267420120.pdf. Lange, D.B., Mobile Objects and Mobile Agents: The Future of Distributed Computing, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2006. This document explains OntoSNP, the information sys- tem model based on ontology and reasoning for the purpose This report leads into the world of mobile agents, an emerg- of biomedical research. Its main functionality is to query ing technology that makes it very much easier to design, about the mitochondrial SNP, gene, and disease information implement, and maintain distributed systems. Mobile agents related to one another.

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52 Liu, L. and S. Meder, Web Services Base Faults 1.2, 2006 how the properties of a ServiceGroup and its entries are made [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open.org/wsrf/wsrf- accessible through a web service interface. ws_ base_faults-1.2-spec-os.pdf [accessed Mar. 31, 2007]. Mason, J. and E. Deakin, Information Technology-- Problem determination in a web services setting is sim- Implications for Transportation, University of California plified by standardizing a base set of information that Transportation Center, Berkeley, Calif., 2001. may appear in fault messages. Web Services-BaseFaults defines an XML schema type for base faults, along with This paper discusses the increased demand for travel and rules for how this base fault type is used and extended by the telecommunication transportation relationship, the diffi- web services. culty of getting large-scale infrastructure built and the possi- bility of using information technology as an alternative, and Liu, S. and J. Zhang, Retrieving and Matching RDF Graphs lessons for successful implementation. by Solving the Satisfiability Problem. [Online]. Available: http://csdl.computer.org/dl/proceedings/wi/2006/2747/00/ MAXIMUS, Best Practices and Lessons Learned: The Office of 274700510.pdf. the Comptroller of the State of New York, Reston, Va., 2002. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) has been This document details the results of the best practice accepted as a standard for semantic representation of resources. analysis performed by MAXIMUS and documents the resul- Efficient methods and tools are needed to solve problems tant findings. As OSC moves forward with a solution for emerging from RDF-based systems; for example, checking CAS, it is critical to understand the best practices and equality of two RDF graphs and retrieving subgraphs from lessons learned from other comparable state and/or large another RDF graph. This paper proposes a method that city initiatives. encodes these problems into satisfiability (SAT) instances and solves them by employing efficient SAT solvers. A proto- McLawhorn, N., Process Mapping for DOT Business Func- type tool is implemented and preliminary experimental results tions, 2005. are given. Transportation Synthesis Reports are brief summaries Liu, S. and J. Zhang, Exploring Large Document Reposito- of currently available information on topics of interest to ries with RDF Technology: The DOPE Project Retrieving Wisconsin DOT staff. Online and print sources include and Matching RDF Graphs by Solving the Satisfiability NCHRP and other TRB programs, AASHTO, the research Problem, 2004 [Online]. Available: http://www.cs.vu.nl/ and practices of other state DOTs, and related research and ~frankh/postscript/IEEE-IS04.pdf. news. This thesaurus-based search system uses automatic index- Melas, P., AASHTO Technology Implementation Group Nom- ing, RDF-based querying, and concept-based visualization of ination of Technology Ready for Implementation, New York results to support exploration of large online document State Department of Transportation, Albany, N.Y., 2005. repositories. The DOPE project (Drug Ontology Project for Elsevier) explores ways to provide access to multiple life sci- Field Automated Communication System (FACS) incorpo- ence information sources through a single interface. rates existing DOT programs and e-mail access to interface with the tablets, thereby allowing coordination with staff for Maguire, T., D. Snelling, and T. Banks, Web Services Service- progress of work and changed work that allows for efficient Group 1.2, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis- accounting. Additionally, the FACS ability for real-time input open.org/wsrf/wsrf-ws_service_group-1.2-spec-os.pdf. shall provide timely evaluation of any potential impacts or delays to the overall project schedule. A ServiceGroup is a heterogeneous by-reference collec- tion of web services. ServiceGroups can be used to form a Melas, P., Technology Implementation, 2005. wide variety of collections of services or WS16 Resources [web services (WS)-Resources], including registries of ser- The topics covered are: Bentley Inspector and Stakeout, vices and associated WS-Resources. Members of a Service- machine navigation/control, stake-less construction, field Group are represented using components called entries. information management system, Trns-port SiteManager, A ServiceGroup entry is a WS-Resource. The web service and Internet bidding. associated with a ServiceGroup entry can be composed from a variety of web services standards including WS20 Resource Missouri Department of Transportation, Specifications of Lifetime, which defines standard patterns by which resources Computer Deliverable Contract Plans, 2000. can be destroyed, WS-BaseNotification, which defines how third parties may subscribe to be informed of changes to the The Missouri DOT uses MicroStation for highway and ServiceGroup, and WS23 ResourceProperties, which defines bridge design and drafting. Highway design surveys and road

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53 design computation are achieved by using the GEOPAK Nelson, D., New York State Department of Transportation's software. (NYSDOT's) Environmental Initiative, AASHTO Center for Environmental Excellence, Washington, D.C., 2003. Mitretek Systems, E-Transit: Electronic Business Strate- gies for Public Transportation, Volume 2, Transportation New York State DOT has fostered this environmental Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, ethic agency-wide to empower staff to make decisions that D.C., 2002. have a positive effect on the environment and urge every New York State DOT employee to look for opportunities to The characteristics and market position of application enhance the department's environmental performance. service providers were investigated, and the strengths and weaknesses of this computing service model were identified. Njord, J.R., Glossary of Highway Quality Assurance A similar investigation of thin client computing was con- Terms, 2005 [Online]. Available: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/ ducted and reported in this volume. onlinepubs/circulars/ec074.pdf. Mitretek Systems and TransTech Management Inc., e-Transit: The purpose of this publication is to provide a reference Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation, document containing common usage of highway quality Volume 1, Transportation Research Board, National assurance terminology. Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2002. North Carolina Department of Transportation, Chapter 5, This report includes a clarification of supply-chain terms, Section 3--Cost Allocation, 2006. discussion of the impact of asset management decisions on parts and inventory management needs, and strategies for North Carolina DOT has a cost allocation plan to distrib- streamlining the supply chain. ute cost to major operating programs such as transportation improvement plan construction, highway maintenance, other Moses, J., eXtensible Access Control Markup Language, programs, and other construction. FHWA requires all states 2005 [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open.org/xacml/ to formulate a plan to distribute overhead cost in compliance 2.0/access_control-xacml-2.0-core-spec-os.pdf. with Circular A-87. Certain costs is considered indirect costs because the units benefit from their existence. By charging This 141-page document is about the 2.0 version of the this cost uniformly across the various areas, FHWA will reim- XACML. It discusses the model, gives some examples, and burse DOTs a pro rata share of the cost. also explains the syntax and the context of XACML. Mueser, B. and Bentley Civil, "19th Annual AGC/NYS DOT OASIS, PKI Action Plan, 2004 [Online]. Available: http:// Technical Conference," In Bentley Inspect/Stakeout, Sara- www.oasis-open.org/committees/pki/pkiactionplan.pdf. toga Springs, N.Y., Dec. 68, 2005. Public key infrastructure (PKI) was invented more than The topics covered are Bentley Inspect/Stakeout--inter- 20 years ago. Today, it is used in many important standards operability: sharing electronic data, electronic deliverables, and protocols (such as SSL/TLS, IPSEC, etc.). Millions of and DOT pilot projects, machine control/navigation, CORS/ times each day, someone visits a secure website for shopping VRS, and GPS. or banking and PKI is used to secure the connection. Nadalin, A., M. Goodner, M. Gudgin, A. Barbir, and Orchard, D. and H. Lockhart, SAML Domain Model, H. Granqvist, WS-Trust 1.3, 2007 [Online]. Available: 2001 [Online]. Available: http://www.oasis-open.org/ http://docs.oasis-open.org/ws-sx/ws-trust/200512/ws-trust- committees/security/docs/draft-sstc-use-domain-05.pdf. 1.3-os.pdf. This domain model provides a description and catego- This specification defines extensions that build on Web rization of the domain in which SAML solves problems. Services Security to provide a framework for requesting and 7 People, software, data, interactions, and behavior are issuing security tokens, and to broker trust relationships. described in the abstract, without binding the specification 8 to a particular implementation. Nejako, H. and K. Shadan, Demistifying Interoperability-- A Basic Tutorial Construction Project Management Hand- Osif, B., Fastlanes on the Transportation Information High- book, 2005 [Online]. Available: http://www.fta.dot.gov/ way, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/ documents/Construct_Proj_Mangmnt_CD.pdf. onlinepubs/trnews/trnews243infohighway.pdf. This handbook provides guidelines to public transit agen- From this small, exclusive network based on technically cies undertaking substantial construction projects either for the dense programming, the protocols and interfaces evolved first time or with little experience in construction management. that now are activated at the click of a mouse.

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54 Pedersen, M.B., Optimization Models and Solution Methods types of elements; for example, the task elements, body ele- for Intermodal Transportation, Denmark: Centre for Traf- ments, software elements, programming elements, etc. fic and Transport, Lyngby, 2005. Priestley, M. and J. Hackos, OASIS DITA Information, Markup, This thesis is composed of three papers, each dealing with and Specialization, 2005 [Online]. Available: http://docs. different aspects in optimization of intermodal transportation oasis-open.org/dita/v1.0/dita-v1.0-spec-os-Architectural and a summary introducing the perceived issues within inter- Specification.pdf. modal transportation and placing the three papers into context. The summary describes the congestion and environmental DITA is an architecture for creating topic-oriented, problems seen in transportation in Europe and discusses why information-typed content that can be reused and single- the European Union sees the reestablishment of the rail sector sourced in a variety of ways. It is also an architecture for in an intermodal setting as the solution to the problems. The creating new topic types and describing new information summary illustrates some of the measures and initiatives taken domains based on existing types and domains. to improve intermodal transportation. The summary presents the concepts behind developing a freight route planner similar Project Development Documentation Procedure, New York to route planners seen in public transit and discusses how that State Department of Transportation, Albany, N.Y., 2002 could be beneficial to the transportation sector as a whole while presenting some of the barriers that may be expected in Raab, R., "Workshop on Interim Human Factors Guidelines case of implementation. for Road Systems," 86th Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. 2125, 2007. Phillip, J.T. and K.R. Marshall, Ohio Department of Trans- Raymond, M., S. Webb, and P.I. Aymond, Emergency Data portation District 2 Office PS&E and Pre-Bid Design Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element, v. 1.0 Functional Specification and Requirements Document, The [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open.org/emergency/ Dayhuff Group and National Cooperative Highway Re- EDXL-DE/V1.0. search Program, Baltimore, Md., 2001. This specification is related to the Common Alerting Pro- This document describes a high level design for the new tocol (CAP), which provides an open, non-proprietary digi- document management and workflow process for the office tal message format for all types of alerts and notifications. of Ohio DOT District 2. CAP messages are recommended as one of the standardized forms for XML-based message content, to be distributed by Powell, R., D. McCoy, T. Wright, and G. Bakolia, Business this Distribution Element. Systems Infrastructure Project, Office of the State Con- troller, Raleigh, N.C., 2003. Rebolj, D. and K. Menzel, Semantic Web-Based Resources for Intelligent Mobile Construction Collaboration, 2004 North Carolina state government is a large, multifaceted [Online]. Available: http://www.itcon.org/data/works/att/ organization with broad and diverse responsibilities. It must 2004_26.content.00370.pdf. provide a variety of services to its citizens and be account- able for multiple and complex programs. The state is experi- This paper focuses on the synergy between the semantic encing continuing challenges from budgetary constraints, web, web services, and agent technologies in the provision of public desires for expanded services, and taxpayer demands such mobile collaboration support infrastructure. A multitier for more effective and efficient operations. architecture is presented, which brings together the necessary technology threads, including the semantic web (to provide a Pre-Summit Study: Global Synthesis Report, Helsinki, framework for shared definitions of terms, resources, and rela- Finland, 2005. tionships), web services (to provide dynamic discovery and inte- gration), and multi-agent technologies (to help mobile workers This document presents summary data and a synthesis accomplish a particular task) to support intelligent mobile col- view from a comparison of 16 documents, which to some laboration. Future deployment scenarios are presented to illus- extent represent the industry-wide expressions of strategic trate the potential benefits for the construction industry. intent from different countries around the world. Robinson, R.J., New York State Department of Transporta- Priestley, M. and J. Hackos, OASIS Darwin Information Typ- tion HEEP Report, Highway Engineering Exchange Pro- ing Architecture (DITA) Language Specification v1.0, 2005 gram, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://www.heepweb.org/ [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open.org/dita/v1.0/ ProgramsReports/Reports/HEEPAgencyReports/tabid/96/ dita-v1.0-spec-os-LanguageSpecification.pdf. EntryID/7/Default.aspx [accessed June 21, 2007]. This document is part of the technical specification for the New York State DOT is in the process of developing an IT DITA architecture. It has 18 chapters, each explaining different governance framework to ensure that the correct mix of

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55 strategic growth, operational support, and required mainte- Sedukhin, I., Management of Web Services: Web Services nance IT initiatives is pursued. Perceived benefits will include: Distributed Management, 2005 [Online]. Available: http:// a closer alignment between IT strategies and department docs.oasis-open.org/wsdm/2004/12/wsdm-mows-1.0.pdf. business strategies, accountability in decisions that impact IT, consistency between IT strategy and policy, and maximum The document explains the formal expression of the return on IT investment. management of web services architecture concepts and application to resources exposed as web services. The man- Schinas, O., D.V. Lyridis, and H.N. Psaraftis, Introducing agement of web service concepts and the web architecture E-brokerage in European Transport Services; The Case of is discussed. the PROSIT Project, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece. SITA, Can Information Technology Remove Complexity and Enable Change for Travel and Transportation Industry? The use of advanced telematic solutions in the transport 2005 [Online]. Available: http://www.sita.aero/News_ sector is already a market trend as well as a policy choice of Centre/Press_releases/Press_releases_2005/Can_IT_ the European Commission (EC) aiming to improve the remove_complexity_and_enable_change_for_travel_and_ overall efficiency of waterborne transport. The research transportation_industry.htm [accessed Feb. 27, 2007]. and development project PROSIT, co-funded by the EC, is an effort to introduce telematic technologies in the tradi- SITA 2005 Insight Conference gathered industry influ- tional field of the shipbroker. As middlemen tend to be encers to discuss convergence, security, and information excluded in an era of "new economy," PROSIT aims to technology. In an industry with severe challenges, there are explore the substitution of an actual commercial procedure no simple solutions. IT is however the enabler for change, to with web-based tools. PROSIT has been developed through remove complexity, and to deliver pragmatic solutions. four major case studies (scenarios) involving different SITA, the world's leading provider of network and commu- states of technology, market needs, and organizational nications solutions to the Travel and Transportation Industry structures. In this paper all scenarios are described, dis- (TTI), announced its speakers and focus for the 2005 Insight cussed, and evaluated. Given the results of PROSIT, some Conference, September 13 to 15 at Doral Tesoro Hotel & qualitative issues of e-brokerage and the future of such ser- Golf Club in Fort Worth, Texas. The conference, in its fifth vices are discussed in view of the modular structure of modern year, focused on effective ways to use technology solutions enterprises. to cut airline and airport costs, enhance business process effi- ciencies, and simplify the travel and transportation industry. Schulze, T., S. Strassburger, and U. Klein, Migration of HLA into Civil Domains: Solutions and Prototypes for Trans- Smith, H., Building a Quality DTM for New York State portation Applications, 1999. Department of Transportation. The U.S. Department of Defense's High Level Architec- The topics covered are: DTM--digital terrain model, ture (HLA) for Modeling and Simulation is a mandatory DGN--graphics, ALG--coordinate geometry, SDB--storm standard for military simulations. The situation in the civil and sanitary database, and MDB--quantity manager database. simulation community is different: simulator interoperability is desirable and even required, but there is no driving force to Solutions, S2, NavisWorks 3D Design File Formats, 2006 mandate the use of a certain standard. This article addresses [Online]. Available: http://www.s2solutions.biz/formats. the problems that a simulator interoperability standard in the htm [accessed Sep. 29, 2006]. civil world faces and discusses how HLA can possibly become the standard that is needed. Several solutions for This table provides an extensive list of the CAD applica- connecting civil simulation tools using HLA are introduced tions currently supported by NavisWorks3, along with any and some prototypical applications focusing on the area of additional information that may be necessary to review files transportation are demonstrated. in NavisWorks. Science Applications International Corporation, Outsourc- Special Committee on Joint Development Force, Technical & ing of State DOT Capital Program Delivery Functions, Application Architecture Task Force, AASHTOWare Stan- Transportation Policy and Analysis Center, Vienna, Va., dards and Guidelines, American Association of State High- 2003. way and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 1996. This document was prepared as part of the 20-24 Series of The Special Committee on Joint Development formed the NCHRP projects on the administration of highway and trans- Technical & Application Architecture Task Force to provide portation agencies. The report is designed to assist state standards and technical guidance for the development of DOTs in assessing the outsourcing of their capital delivery AASHTOWare software products. The purpose of these functions. standards and guidelines was and is to maximize the return

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56 on investment, improve the quality, and increase the useful- intelligent transportation system (ITS) project. To further ness of the products. advance the use of innovative procurement strategies to pro- cure ITS, an aggressive outreach campaign is suggested. Srinivasan, L. and T. Banks, Web Services Resource Lifetime 1.2, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open.org/ Tavasszy, L., W. Jonkhoff, A. Burgess, M. Rustenburg, and wsrf/wsrf-ws_resource_lifetime-1.2-spec-os.pdf. A. Hunt, Developing Harmonized European Approaches for Transport Costing and Project Assessment, 2005. The relationship between web services and stateful resources is defined in WS-Resource. This specification defines This report presents the first results of WP2 of the harmo- message exchanges to standardize the means by which a nized European approaches for transport costing (HEATCO) WS-Resource may be destroyed, and resource properties project. It presents state-of-the-art insights into transport (WS-ResourceProperties) that may be used to inspect and mon- project appraisal. It accomplishes this by first trying to indi- itor the lifetime of a WS-Resource. This specification defines cate existing evaluation frameworks in countries. Based on two means of destroying a WS-Resource: immediate destruc- the research carried out in the HEATCO project so far, the tion and time-based, scheduled destruction. advantages and drawbacks of main elements of evaluation harmonization are discussed. Furthermore, it deals with Streett, D., "Emerging Technologies for Highway Con- those methodological questions that demand that a choice struction," In The Value of Embracing New Technologies, be made in the harmonization framework. Bearing this in A. D. T. Conference, 2005. mind, this is an issue paper to guide further research in the HEATCO project. It is meant to identify the relevant issues The topics covered include good data being essential to for further research and to indicate the questions that need to exploiting technology; increasing confidence in engineering be answered. data; 3D modeling of proposed project design; multiple uses of shared electronic data; technology implementations (pilots); Teague, T., "FIATECH Interoperability Projects Status machine guidance, control, and navigation; technology uses Roadmap (20052006)," In Interoperability Needs & for inspection and stakeout; and the realities of emerging Data Standards, 2006. technologies. This project combines two existing FIATECH projects Streett, D., Survey Technology & Policies, 2005. [DSC and IRR (Interoperability Requirements for the Roadmap)]. The focus of this project is the first step in the The topics covered include new CORS network and pol- FIATECH Interoperability Work Process to identify high icy changes. business value usage scenarios and project opportunities. Sutton, J.C., TCRP Synthesis 55: Geographic Information While this project has a long-term goal to identify all high- Systems Application in Transit, Transportation Research value opportunities across the facility's life cycle, it uses an Board, Washington, D.C., 2004, 70 pp. incremental approach so high business value projects can be started at any time. This synthesis will be of interest to transit practitioners and researchers, including technical staff and transit man- Teague, T., Interoperability Needs & Data Standards, agers, as well as to vendors of Geographic Information Sys- FIATECH, 2006 [Online] available: http://www.fiatech.org/ tem (GIS) solutions. This report illustrates the value of GIS projects/idim/inds.htm [accessed Sep. 5, 2006]. to transit agencies in service provision and in potential cost savings. The report covers the full range of transit services This project combines two existing FIATECH projects including planning, operations, management, information [Data Standards Clearinghouse (DSC) and Interoperability technology, and customer service. Included are case studies Requirements for the Roadmap (IRR)]. The focus of this from five large transit operators that demonstrate a number of project is the first step in the FIATECH Interoperability innovative uses of GIS, as well as illustrate how GIS is Work Process to identify high business value usage sce- becoming a part of mainstream information technology and narios and project opportunities. While this project has a a core technology in transit information services. long-term goal to identify all high-value opportunities across the facility's life cycle, it uses an incremental Tarnoff, P.J. and K.R. Marshall, Considerations for a Guide approach so high business value projects can be started at to Contracting ITS Projects, NCHRP Web Document No. any time. 85, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2005, 249 pp. Teague, T.L., Capital Facilities Industry Interoperability Technical Framework Definition, 2005. The products of this research effort provide transporta- tion professionals with tools to aid in the identification of This is intended to be a discussion draft, incorporating the appropriate innovative procurement strategies for a specific ideas of the initial draft of the FIATECH Capital Projects

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57 Technology Roadmap Element 9--Lifecycle Data Manage- Tuchman, J.L., "Owners Tackle Work Force and Process ment and Information Integration Technical Framework, Transformation," Engineering News-Record, Nov. 27, 2006. published in October 2004, and incorporating initial results from the Interoperability Requirements for the Roadmap Bold cooperative action to alleviate the industry's short- (IRR) Project. fall in craft workers "must begin today because tomorrow will be too late," said veteran labor relations analyst Peter A. Tiede, R., Sanitary Sewer, Larsen Engineers, Rochester, N.Y. Cockshaw in a fire and brimstone message to owners at the Construction Users Roundtable national conference in An illustration of a sanitary sewer main design completed Tucson, Arizona, Nov. 1315, 2006. for a local town. It will be incorporated in a New York State DOT design for construction during other highway construc- Vambenepe, W., Web Service Distributed Management, tion that is designed by that agency. 2005 [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open.org/wsdm/ 2004/12/wsdm-muws-part1-1.0.pdf. Trans-port, Trans-port Platform Component Status by Year, 2007. This document describes how web service technology can be used to connect information technology to remote loca- FieldNet and Trns-port Intranet are supported on Oracle tions for manageability interface. Management using web databases. services (MUSW) are used for monitoring the quality of a service, for controlling a task, managing a resource life cycle, and enforcing a service-level agreement. Transportation Research Board, NCHRP Report 371: State Departments of Transportation: Strategies for Change, Vambenepe, W., S. Graham, and P. Niblett, Web Services Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Topics 1.3, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis-open. Washington, D.C., 1995, 139 pp. org/wsn/wsn-ws_topics-1.3-spec-os.pdf. This report documents and summarizes the results of a The event-driven, or notification-based, interaction pattern two-phase project involving: (1) field research and analysis is a commonly used pattern for inter-object communications. of factors driving change in transportation and state DOTs Examples exist in many domains; for example, in publish/ and the impacts on state DOTs; and (2) the most effective subscribe systems provided by Message Oriented Middle- strategies for DOTs to respond effectively. ware vendors, or in system and device management domains. This notification pattern is increasingly being used in a web Travis, J., CEC/NCDOT Joint Subcommittee on CEI, Meeting services context. Minutes, Charlotte, N.C., July 11, 2001. Von Riegen, L., UDDI Version 2.03 Data Structure Reference, Travis, J., CEC/NCDOT Joint Subcommittee on CEI, Meet- 2002 [Online]. Available: http://uddi.org/pubs/Data ing Minutes, Raleigh, N.C., June 7, 2001. Structure-V2.03-Published-20020719.htm. The first CEC/NCDOT Joint Subcommittee on CEI, June 7, The UDDI Version 2.0 API specification defines approx- 2001, at the North Carolina DOT Highway Design Confer- imately 40 SOAP messages that are used to perform inquiry ence Room located at the Century Center Complex, Raleigh, and publishing functions against any UDDI compliant service North Carolina registry. This document outlines the details of each of the XML structures associated with these messages. Tuchman, J.L., Owners Tackle Work Force and Process Transformation, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://enr.ecnext. Wachs, M., Improving Efficiency and Equity in Transporta- com/comsite5/bin/enr_description_docview_save.pl?p. tion Finance, The Brookings Institution Series on Trans- portation Reform, Washington, D.C., 2003. CURT leaders envision solutions coming from "process transformation" in the industry. Its strategy group called A complex partnership between many governmental bod- 3xPT, a collaboration with the American Institute of Archi- ies, continually influenced by numerous private, corporate, tects and the Associated General Contractors (ACG) of and civic interests, finances our nation's transportation sys- America, reported that it will involve every sector from engi- tem. But the nature of the partnership is changing. Originally neers and subcontractors to suppliers and attorneys in the offset by a variety of user fees, such as tolls and fuel taxes, drive toward collaboration. AGC's John Tocci called on the burden of financing transportation programs is gradu- owners to share the cost of adoption of new technology tools ally being shifted to local governments and voter-approved that will reduce the cost of design and construction and initiatives. This shift to local transportation taxes raises create a "litigation-free zone" around building information interesting issues for public policy. This brief dissects the modeling. arcane and complicated system of transportation funding by

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58 describing the relationships that define the federal, state, and continue to grow at record levels thanks to the Transporta- local roles. It summarizes the most pressing problems facing tion Equity Act for the 21st Century and various state initia- the transportation network, and argues that expanded reliance tives. Demands on state work forces have never been greater. on user fees remains the most promising way to promote Consequently, state DOTs are looking for ways to leverage equity and efficiency in transportation finance. their work forces by outsourcing key activities to deliver prod- ucts and services to their customers. With limited resources Warne, T.R., State DOT Outsourcing and Private-Sector and ever-increasing demands for services, the DOTs are Utilization, American Association of State Highway and endeavoring to optimize their outsourcing activities. In 1997, Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 2003. NCHRP Synthesis Report 246: Outsourcing of State Highway Facilities and Services was prepared to capture the nature of The topic of outsourcing services by state DOTs is one of outsourcing at that time. This report is an update of that effort much interest and consideration. Capital programs in the states and represents the most current knowledge on the subject.