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28 segment in 2004. The LRV icon flashes when the train Los Angeles is considering the use of retractable delin- is approaching. eators along the far "limit line" for the left-turn pocket to All-red signal phase. The Gold Line opened in July 2003 create a physical barrier to discourage drivers from mak- and runs 13.7 miles from downtown Los Angeles to ing illegal left turns. Issues they are considering include Pasadena. Only about 3/4 of a mile of the Gold Line is reliability, maintenance, breakage, and vandalism, as street running operations. Trains operate at 20 mph and well as issues with the city that must be explored. parallel very narrow streets through a residential neigh- Rear-view type mirrors. LACMTA looked at using rear- borhood. There are seven signalized intersections, all of view type mirrors in left-turn pockets to allow left-turn which have an all-red phase where the parallel traffic is drivers to view LRVs coming from behind; however, also held on red as the train passes through the inter- they have not used them to this point for multiple rea- section. LRV-activated train-approaching warning signs sons. For example, there is an issue of where to put the have also been installed for the cross-street traffic at these mirrors. They must be in a position where the drivers can seven intersections (which is not done on the Blue Line). see in them. At the same time, there is the issue of the Pavement treatment. In locations with side-running oper- mirrors being hit by large trucks. ation, drivers on the cross-street approach to the inter- section encroach into the dynamic envelope of the train. To keep drivers back, they enhanced the crosswalk MARYLAND TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION-- CENTRAL LIGHT RAIL LINE before the tracks to make it more noticeable. They used a colored concrete pattern, which has worked well. Deployment of MUTCD Light Rail Traffic Control Devices to Video cameras on trains. LACMTA has video cameras Improve Safety at At-Grade Light Rail Crossings in Balti- mounted on the windshield of the LRV pointing outward. more, Maryland (2005) (20) presents the findings of a light rail This allows them to review collisions to determine the traffic safety study performed for a 1.9-mile section of the cause and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. Central Light Rail Line along the Howard Street corridor in Public outreach and education. LACMTA has main- Baltimore. The primary objective of the study was to examine tained a very active and aggressive public outreach pro- the effectiveness of various traffic control devices and positive gram. They distribute brochures and DVDs at schools, guidance measures to minimize the number and severity of public events, churches, and businesses. They are cur- accidents involving light rail, buses, pedestrians, and other rently planning to produce two videos: one that addresses vehicular traffic. the issue of left-turn collisions with LRVs at signalized intersections and one that addresses the issue of pedes- The 1.9-mile section of the Central Light Rail Line along trian accidents with LRVs at gated crossings. They are the Howard Street corridor was constructed within the exist- currently waiting for funding and expect to complete the ing right-of-way on Howard Street, with two parallel tracks project by December 2008. that run along the west side of the street for the majority of its length (Figure 31). The segment includes 17 non-gated LACMTA has explored a number of other counter- signalized intersections. The LRT alignment includes semi- measures for mitigating collisions between LRVs and motor exclusive type b.3 (protected by 6-in. high curbs between vehicles at signalized intersections. These countermeasures crossings) and type b.4 (separated by mountable curbs, strip- include ing, and/or lane designation). Originally, there was no vehi- cle traffic allowed along Howard Street; however, in 1997, In-roadway lights. Recently, LACMTA has been looking northbound one-way vehicular traffic was added, resulting in at Houston's use of in-roadway lights. Although Houston a rise in the rate and number of reported accidents involving has installed in-roadway lights to discourage red-light LRVs, motor vehicles, and pedestrians. running on the cross-street approaches to signalized intersections with LRT (to reduce right-angle collisions), LACMTA is considering using in-roadway lights to dis- courage motorists from running red left-turn arrows from the left-turn pocket lane. LACMTA plans to speak with the city to determine if this would be possible and, if so, to develop the specifications for the lights. Retractable delineators. LACMTA is also awaiting the results of two different tests of retractable delineators. Houston METRO is testing retractable delineators for use in the TMC area to delineate to drivers when they are permitted to be on the tracks to make a left turn. The Michigan DOT is currently testing a type of retractable delineator to discourage drivers from driving around the crossing gates at a heavy-rail grade crossing. Again, FIGURE 31 Baltimore's light rail (Courtesy: Jon Bell).