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30 Line visited the LRT systems in Los Angeles, Portland, and intersection. The intersection of 12th Street and Ahern Street San Diego to observe what they were doing in terms of safety, is controlled by a stop sign only on the Ahern approach. and installed the LRV-activated train-approaching warning Although this is an unsignalized intersection, there is a pedes- signs and the crosshatch pavement markings based on the trian head that displays the words "No Left Turn" when a train practice in these cities. is approaching (Figure 33). At this intersection, some drivers pull up past the stop bar, look right for a gap in traffic, and are struck by the train coming from their left. Two primary issues New Jersey TransitNewark Light Rail are contributing to this problem. First, drivers cannot see the New Jersey Transit's Newark Light Rail is a 6.5-mile light rail pedestrian head from the stop bar. Second, the pedestrian head line that operates as a rapid transit link between a terminal sta- is not timed properly with the approach of a train. tion at Newark Broad Street Station through Newark Penn Sta- tion located in Newark (Pennsylvania Railroad Station or Sacramento RT has been working with the city and the Penn StationNewark) to the Grove Street Station in Bloom- engineers, and they plan to take the following steps to reduce field, New Jersey. The line is in an underground tunnel for collisions when funding becomes available: 1.7 miles either at grade or depressed cut for 3.8 miles, and includes approximately 1 mile of street-running territory. The · Add striping and pavement markings on the cross-street street-running territory is part of the Broad Street Extension. approach to cover approximately 15 ft from the nearest The extension to Broad Street Station is mixed street-running rail to delineate a zone where drivers should not be territory where automobile traffic operates parallel to the stopped. guideway, which is separated from the traffic lanes by a 6-in.- · Reposition the signal head so that drivers can see it mountable granite curb. The street-running extension align- from the stop bar. ment has 14 grade and pedestrian crossings. These intersec- · Make signal timing adjustments to the "No Left Turn" tions are protected by traffic control devices that are integrated sign to give motorists enough advance warning to make with the train control system to give priority to the LRVs and decisions. to prevent conflicting signals and unsafe vehicular move- · Request funding to replace current pedestrian heads ments. Each intersection is marked in accordance with the that display "No Left Turn" with the activated no left- provisions of the MUTCD and New Jersey DOT diagnostic turn symbol blank-out sign. team recommendations. Mixed-Use Operations Newark Light Rail has experienced between about two and four collisions annually at the signalized intersections. In Sacramento RT has mixed-use operations along parts of 2007, there were two such incidents: a right-angle collision 12th Street, which is a one-way street running into downtown caused by motorist running a red light and one involving a Sacramento. It carries four lanes of automobile traffic, drop- motorist within the dynamic envelope of the train. ping lanes one-by-one into downtown, where there are two lanes. The southbound tracks share the eastern-most lane with SACRAMENTO REGIONAL TRANSIT DISTRICT automobile traffic, whereas the northbound train operates in its own right-of-way (Figure 34). Therefore, drivers make left The Sacramento RT operates approximately 37 miles of light turns in a shared lane with the train and turn across the tracks rail, which links the eastern and northeastern suburbs with carrying trains in the opposing directions (Figure 35). The downtown and South Sacramento. Approximately 29 miles of problem that Sacramento RT is currently experiencing is that the light rail system are double track, with the remaining being single track. Sacramento RT began light rail service in 1987, expanding their system in the late 1990s, and continuing with expansions that nearly doubled their system during the 2000s. The Sacramento RT light rail system is experiencing particu- lar issues with each of its operating environments, including side-running, shared-lane, and a pedestrian mall. Collision Experience Side-Running Environment In one section of 12th Street, which runs one-way southbound, the light rail operates in a side-running environment on the east FIGURE 33 Ahern Street approach to 12th Street with side of 12th Street. Therefore, the cross-street traffic approach- pedestrian head train approaching warning sign (Courtesy: ing from the east must cross the tracks before entering the Sacramento Regional Transit District).