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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 10 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Innovations for Airport Terminal Facilities

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James Crites DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Unison Consulting Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, John K. Duval Charlottesville Beverly Municipal Airport Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Kitty Freidheim Freidheim Consulting Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Oakland International Airport Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Tom Jensen Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of National Safe Skies Alliance Technology, Atlanta Catherine M. Lang Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Federal Aviation Administration Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Carolyn Motz Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Hagerstown Regional Airport Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Richard Tucker Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Huntsville International Airport Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Sabrina Johnson Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Air Transport Association of America Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Henry Ogrodzinski Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA National Association of State Aviation Officials Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York American Association of Airport Executives Robert E. Skinner, Jr. University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the SECRETARY Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks Transportation Research Board John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS David Kelly, Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Thomas J. Madison, Jr., Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2008. *Membership as of November 2008.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 10 Innovations for Airport Terminal Facilities CORGAN ASSOCIATES, INC. Dallas, TX IN ASSOCIATION WITH RICONDO & ASSOCIATES, INC. Alexandria, VA TRANSSOLUTIONS, LLC Fort Worth, TX TRANSECURE, LLC Leesburg, VA Subject Areas Planning and Administration Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 10 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 07-01 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN: 978-0-309-11762-3 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2008910408 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2008 Transportation Research Board airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT PERMISSION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. 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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 10 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Andra Briere, Editor ACRP PROJECT 07-01 PANEL Field of Design Bruce Anderson, Landrum & Brown, Cincinnati, OH (Chair) Teresa Davidson, Jacobs Carter Burgess, Arlington, VA Jorge Garcia, San Francisco (CA) International Airport Karen Scott, Louisville (KY) Regional Airport Authority Prianka N. Seneviratne, Asian Development Bank, Manila, The Philippines Lawrence "Larry" Smith, Odessa, FL Patrick Sullivan, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research discussed in this report was performed under ACRP Project 07-01, "New Concepts for Airport Terminal Landside Facilities," by a research team of recognized experts in airport terminal design, landside facility planning, simulation modeling, and airport security. Corgan Associates, Inc., was the pri- mary research consultant. Philip Mein, Principal Emeritus at Corgan Associates, Inc., was the Principal Investigator and Andrew Kirchhoff, Associate at Corgan Associates, Inc., was the Project Manager. The other authors were M. Allen Hoffman, Director at Ricondo & Associates, Inc; Jacob Strawn, Managing Consultant at Ricondo & Associates, Inc.; Belinda Hargrove, Managing Principal at TransSolutions, LLC; and Art Kosatka, CEO at TranSecure, LLC. The research team would like to express its gratitude to the members of the project panel for their insightful comments and input throughout this research project. The research team would also like to thank the staff at the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, the Port of Oakland, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, American Airlines, and Southwest Airlines for their participation in the research effort. In addition, the following individuals provided key contributions for which the research team is very grateful: Jeffrey Fegan, CEO, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport; Kevin Dolliole, Senior Vice President, UCG Associates, Inc.; Mike Forster, Strategy and Regulation Director, BAA; John ZuZu, Director, Facilities Department, Southwest Airlines; Tom Sparks, Regional Coordinator, Corporate Real Estate, American Airlines; Mark Canton, Director, Sabre Airline Solutions; Ray Mundy, Executive Direc- tor, Airport Ground Transportation Association; Pat Tomcheck, Traffic Operations Center, Los Angeles World Airports; Samuel Ingalls, Assistant Director, Information System, Las Vegas McCarran Interna- tional Airport; Dave Tomber, Planning Program Manager, Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, and Edward McCagg, Director of Airport Design, NBBJ.

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FOREWORD By Michael R. Salamone Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 10: Innovations for Airport Terminal Facilities, provides useful synopses of the latest worldwide developments in landside facilities design and discusses future trends and innovative passenger service/processing concepts. The report describes the need for design innovation to serve and process passengers, discusses how innovation can meet many of these needs, and presents several state-of-the-industry design inventions. It explores such innovations as a process-based departure hall, self-service bag check, a drive-through pro- cessing area, elder-friendly baggage devices, alternative curbsides, and arrival lounges. The report will be of interest to airport and airline facilities, real estate, and operations managers, as well as airport planners, architects, and engineers interested in new concepts that can stimulate design and innovation in landside facilities at airports. Airport terminal landside facilities evolve in response to changes in travelers' needs and industry development and regulation. New functions, services, and processes must be accommodated as they appear even when the facility was not originally designed for the pur- pose. Increases in passenger and baggage screening, provisions for self-service check-in, blast protection, an aging population, persons with disabilities, and the need to improve intermodal connections are among the various functions, services, and processes that are currently necessitating design invention. To address such demands, some airports have moved functions from their traditional locations, reallocated space within the terminal, converted and reconstructed facilities, or created new types of facilities. Such changes have varied impacts on passengers' experience, airlines' relationships with their customers, and airport revenues and costs. Research is needed on the interface between various airport terminal landside elements (e.g., garages, roads, curbs, terminals) to identify improved ways of accommodating new airport terminal functions. Under ACRP Project 7-01, Corgan Associates, Inc. was asked to describe new concepts that will stimulate design innovation for terminal landside facilities at FAA-designated large- and medium-hub airports to improve passenger accessibility and level of service between ground transportation and the secure parts of the terminal. This report is not intended to present turnkey concepts for any airport. Rather, it intends to stimulate design innovation by inspiring adoption and adaptation of these concepts to each unique airport environment. Although some of the concepts are presently working at a few airports, other concepts will require a consensus among airport, airlines, and regula- tors before they can be implemented fully and successfully. Further research may examine operational, technical, and legal issues as well as examine means and methods used around the world.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Background 3 Research Objectives 3 Need for Innovation 3 Report Organization 4 Definitions 5 Assumptions 8 Chapter 2 Research Findings 8 Published Document Review 11 Aviation Industry Interviews 13 Airport Site Visits 16 Chapter 3 Approach to Developing New Concepts 16 Passenger Processes 18 Issues Passengers Commonly Face 20 Innovations Identified 20 Concepts Incorporating Innovations 21 Evaluation Process 22 Chapter 4 Innovations 22 Process-Based Departures Hall 25 Passenger-Processing Facilities 27 Self-Service Baggage Check 29 Bag-Check Plaza 31 Supplemental Curbsides 33 Passenger Assistance Parking Area 34 Low-Profile Passenger Baggage Devices 36 High-Capacity Flow-Through Elevators 38 Consolidated Meeters-and-Greeters Area 39 Arrivals Lounges 41 Summary of Innovations 42 Chapter 5 Landside Concepts 42 Adjacent Passenger-Processing Facilities 48 On-Airport Passenger-Processing Facilities 52 Remote Passenger-Processing Facilities 53 Landside Concept Considerations 56 Chapter 6 Terminal Concepts 56 Departures Hall 59 Arrivals Facilities

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62 Chapter 7 Conclusions 62 Potential Benefits of Research Results 62 Applicability of Results to Airport Practice 63 Suggestions for Further Research 64 References 65 Appendix Simulation Analysis Results