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1 SUMMARY Innovations for Airport Terminal Facilities Airport terminal and landside projects are projected to account for well over one-half of the planned development costs at large- and medium-hub airports in the United States over the next 5 years. With construction costs increasing faster than inflation, the need for innovative solutions to address the common terminal and landside issues facing many U.S. airports is more crucial than ever. Objectives The objectives of this research project were to identify and develop innovations that can be implemented at airports of various sizes to improve the experience of passengers as they travel between the airport entrance and the secure portions of the passenger terminal. These innovations were then to be incorporated into concepts intended to stim- ulate design solutions that address the common issues passengers face on the landside portions of the terminal. Particular focus was given to the needs of the aging population. The innovations and concepts developed as part of this research effort were focused on those that could be implemented within the next 5 to 10 years at large- and medium-hub airports. Approach The initial steps of the research process were to review relevant published information, interview representatives of the aviation industry, and conduct on-site observations of innovations at certain airports in the United States, Europe, and Asia. The next step was to identify issues or problems that passengers commonly face and innovations that could address those issues based on innovative practices in effect at airports around the world. Two or more innovations were then combined to offer concepts that could be implemented to address the issues facing passengers. The innovations and the concepts incorporating the innovations were tested using a variety of methods, including (1) peer reviews with indus- try experts, (2) on-site meetings with airport stakeholders, and (3) simulation modeling to identify the potential facility impacts associated with certain innovations. The following assumptions were made regarding the future operating environment in which the concepts could be implemented: Common-use self-service kiosks will become more widely implemented, especially at airports in the United States. Passengers will be able to tag their own check baggage, as is currently allowed in several European countries.

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2 Approximately 80% of the traveling public will obtain boarding passes via self-service devices or the Internet and will check baggage using self-service bag drop locations at airports; the remainder will use full-service check-in functions at airports. Airport operators will take advantage of the flexibility to tailor their security programs to avoid the so-called "300-ft rule," which bans any unauthorized vehicles from parking within 300 ft of the terminal when the Department of Homeland Security has elevated the threat level to "orange." Results The following innovations identified during this research project offer new opportunities to address common issues that passengers face on the terminal landside: Process-based departures hall, Passenger-processing facilities, Self-service baggage check, Bag-check plaza, Supplemental curbsides, Passenger-assistance parking area, Low-profile passenger baggage devices, High-capacity flow-through elevators, Consolidated meters-and-greeters area, and Arrivals lounges. Each innovation was examined in terms of the key drivers for implementation, the assump- tions or prerequisites for implementation, potential benefits from both the passenger and airport operations perspectives, and challenges to implementation. Although the innovations are discussed separately, it is intended that they be regarded as a "kit of parts" for future planning and design efforts. The concepts incorporating innovations were divided into landside and terminal concepts. The landside concepts are focused on the development of processing facilities that could incorporate passenger and vehicular functions that typically take place in, or immediately in front of, a terminal building. The terminal concepts relate to passenger processes inside the terminal building. All of the concepts are intended to improve the passenger experience by leveraging technology to make the processes and operations more efficient. They are applicable to either new construction or renovations. It should be emphasized that--although many innovations and concepts are described and illustrated in this report--it is not intended to be a design manual. Each airport has its own unique configuration and challenges. The expectation is that this report will stimulate the appropriate innovative solutions to meet those challenges.