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13 would require proper safeguards to prevent passengers from commercial vehicles, to a second or third median curb-- making false claims for undelivered bags. often causes pedestrian/vehicle conflicts. The introduction The sorting of arriving bags so that, particularly at large of the cell phone lot not only removes some vehicles from airports, bags could be delivered to multiple locations con- circling on terminal roadways, but also provides passengers venient for the customer was also discussed. It was felt that the opportunity to inform their drivers where on the curb to this service would be too onerous on the airlines and, there- pick them up. Another method to reduce congestion is to fore, unlikely to be adopted. encourage commercial vehicle trip reductions through con- Another common issue for arriving passengers is waiting solidation of the shuttle bus systems for rental cars, hotels/ for rental cars or courtesy shuttles, often late at night or in in- motels, and off-airport parking. clement weather. The concept of arrivals lounges was dis- Regional rail connections are also an important issue. cussed, wherein passengers could wait and be provided with Ridership as low as 10% to 15% of originating and terminat- real-time information as to when their transportation would ing passengers on the most highly used systems in the United arrive. This concept would provide passengers with a better States has been the main reason that these systems are difficult environment, better security, and less stress from wondering to justify economically and that they have not been widely if and when a courtesy vehicle or bus will arrive. implemented. The development of other functions and ameni- ties at airports, such as conference centers and retail develop- ment, could result in increased transit demand, providing Airport Technology Groups greater justification for rail connection. Technology will continue to play an increasing role in passenger processing. While common-use systems are gaining Airport Site Visits acceptance, as mentioned in Chapter 1, obstacles still have to be overcome. One key challenge to widespread implementa- On-site investigations of recent innovations at a variety of tion of common-use systems is the interface of hardware and airports were conducted in the United States, Europe, and software between the airport and the airlines. Also, airport Asia. The focus of these investigations was to identify inno- management and the airlines may have different priorities as vative methods for processing passengers. Innovations noted to how common-use systems should serve passengers, par- at Heathrow, Munich, Vienna International, and Hong Kong ticularly regarding the provision of information. Self-service International airports are discussed below. London Stansted, kiosks, for example, have great potential for providing general London Gatwick, and San Francisco International airports information and even advertising, which could be beneficial were also visited to gain insight on specific topics, such as low- to airport management from a passenger service and revenue cost carrier operations (London Stansted) and the two-step point-of-view beyond the typical flight and boarding infor- check-in process (London Gatwick) in Europe and remote mation, which would be the airlines' priority. baggage check in the United States (San Francisco Interna- Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is generally accepted tional). While examination of the processes in place at these as excellent technology; however, it has been available for latter airports was beneficial to development of the innova- almost 20 years and still has not gained widespread acceptance tions described in Chapter 4, more focus in this report is placed primarily because of implementation costs. One of the many on the former airports as they provide examples of both potential benefits of RFID is that a passenger's bag could facility and processing innovations. be permanently identified with an implanted chip and itiner- ary information could be added to the chip, resulting in Terminal 5 at Heathrow Airport simplification of the entire baggage-check process. RFID has the capability to store a great deal of information about the Heathrow's Terminal 5 opened in March 2008. Two inno- passenger and his or her general travel plans. vations at Terminal 5 that are pertinent to this research effort are the departures hall check-in process and the multifunc- tional close-in parking garage. The check-in process was de- Airport Ground Transportation Experts signed assuming that 80% of passengers either would proceed One of the biggest challenges facing airport planners and directly to the SSCP (i.e., those passengers who checked in via designers is curbside congestion. The driver of every vehicle the Internet or remote self-service kiosk and do not have entering the terminal area wants to load (arrivals) or unload check baggage); would check in using self-service kiosks (departures) near the terminal doors. This "pooling" of vehi- (i.e., those passengers who need a boarding pass only) and then cles near the terminal doors creates bottlenecks, which make proceed immediately to the SSCP; or would deposit check it difficult for through traffic to bypass the terminal. The baggage at a baggage drop and then proceed to the SSCP. The common solution--forcing certain transit modes, such as remaining 20% of passengers were assumed to use full-service

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14 Figure 2-1. Heathrow Terminal 5 conceptual section. agent positions to obtain the necessary travel documents or passenger terminals and can be accessed via pedestrian check baggage. The full-service positions are located on the routes from either terminal without crossing the roadways perimeter of the departures hall to encourage passengers to (see Figure 2-2). Above the transit station is a central termi- use the more prominently located self-service functions. nal (landside only), which provides self-service check-in The multifunctional parking garage (see Figure 2-1) includes devices adjacent to the exit from the station platform; it also a departures forecourt rather than traditional linear curbs provides a remote check-in hall, which is staffed by agents, located on different levels directly adjacent to the terminal and has self-service baggage check capability. A further building, as well as an intermodal station for rail service serv- innovation is the use of four large forecourts on either side ing the airport, surrounding communities, and the city of of Terminal 2 in lieu of conventional curbs. On one side of London. The garage is separated from the terminal by a the terminal, two levels are provided for POV passengers-- pedestrian plaza, which enhances the transition between the departures on the upper level and arrivals on the lower terminal and the garage and minimizes at-grade pedestrian level. On the other side of the terminal is a similar arrange- crossings of roadways. ment for CV passengers. The area immediately in front of Terminal 2 is a pedestrian plaza. Munich Airport has a very large covered area between the Munich Airport two terminals, referred to as the Munich Airport Center, which Munich Airport exhibits several innovations relevant is used for large public events and contains commercial func- to this research effort. The transit station for rail service tions. The center serves to publicize the airport and generate between the city and the airport is located between the two greater use of the regional transit system serving the airport. Figure 2-2. Munich Airport conceptual site plan.

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15 Vienna International Airport One key innovation related to Vienna International Airport is the City Airport Terminal located in the Vienna City Center, which provides remote check-in facilities via SSDs, with self-service baggage check and full-service agent positions (see Figures 2-3 and 2-4). The City Airport Terminal allows passengers to obtain boarding passes and check baggage using either self-service devices or full-service agents. Baggage must be checked at least 90 min prior to departure and is transported to the airport on the same train as the passengers. The baggage is off-loaded at the airport and inserted into the baggage-handling system directly for screening and delivery Figure 2-4. Vienna City Airport terminal--interior. to the aircraft. Source: Corgan Associates, Inc. Vienna International Airport was one of the first European airports where self-service baggage check was implemented (see Figure 2-5). Boarding-pass-only SSDs are located in front These curbside areas, located in the parking areas on both of the ticket counters. Passengers who check in via the Internet ends of the terminal, provide convenient access to the terminal can proceed directly to the bag-drop-only counter positions building and prevent the addition of private vehicle traffic on and check their baggage with an agent. Passengers can also the main terminal curbside roadways. As the taxicab curbsides use the self-service baggage check-in positions. Airline per- are not directly adjacent to the terminal building, less security- sonnel are strategically positioned throughout the check-in related enforcement is required and drivers often opt to use hall to encourage the use of self-service devices and to assist immediately adjacent short-term parking spaces rather than passengers as necessary. dwell excessively at the auxiliary curb. The innovations described above serve as the foundation for developing innovations that address the common issues Hong Kong International Airport faced by passengers at airports in the United States. Since the An innovative approach used at Hong Kong International U.S. airport operating environment is different from that at air- Airport to manage terminal curbside congestion involves the ports in Europe or Asia (higher level of POV activity, availabil- relocation of all private vehicle pickup/drop-off activity to ity of curbside check-in, etc.), the innovations at those airports auxiliary curbside areas within the terminal parking facilities. have been adapted to better suit U.S. airports. References to those airports are made throughout this report to provide examples of similar applications of each innovation. Figure 2-5. Self-service baggage check at Vienna Figure 2-3. Vienna City Airport terminal--exterior. International Airport. Source: Corgan Associates, Inc. Source: Corgan Associates, Inc.