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16 CHAPTER 3 Approach to Developing New Concepts The approach to developing new concepts began with The process for evaluating the innovative concepts, from examining passengers' experiences as they proceed through the perspectives of passenger processes and airport operations, an airport's landside facilities and terminal processes and then is presented at the end of this chapter, and the evaluations are developing ways to improve that experience through new included with the discussions of each innovation and concept terminal landside facility concepts. The main components of to assist the operators of large- and medium-hub airports, the this approach included the following: airlines serving those airports, and landside and terminal planners in evaluating the applicability of specific innovations Identifying key passenger processes related to terminal or concepts to their airports. The components of the approach landside facilities; used in this research project are described below. Establishing the issues, or problems, that passengers com- monly face in those processes; Passenger Processes Identifying innovations to address the issues passenger commonly face; Identifying the key processes that passengers experience Developing concepts incorporating those innovations; and after they enter the airport (whether arriving by private vehi- Evaluating the new concepts. cle or other form of ground transportation) is central to the development of innovative solutions to common issues/ The research team began by identifying the key processes problems. Because the layout of landside facilities at each that passengers typically experience at an airport while either airport is unique, it is important to focus on the similarities, leaving on a flight or returning from one. From the research which are the processes. described in Chapter 2, a number of issues that passengers The process flow diagrams show the paths of passengers commonly encounter was identified. One or more of these arriving at an airport and proceeding to the SSCP (see Fig- issues may be encountered in any of the passenger processes-- ure 3-1) and subsequently leaving the secure area of the airport for example, the inconvenience of waiting may be encoun- and proceeding to the airport exit (see Figure 3-2). The lines tered when checking baggage, obtaining a boarding pass, connecting the various activity points indicate that the activity retrieving baggage, using a shuttle bus, or during any other relates to roadway traffic, pedestrian movement, or high- process. occupancy vehicles. Innovations that are currently in use or being developed at The two overall process flows described can be separated airports around the world were identified based on their into a number of more specific flows that have their own char- potential for mitigating these common passenger issues and acteristics. The following process flows are discussed in the improving levels of service. These innovations are described next sections: in Chapter 4. The innovations were then incorporated into terminal landside planning concepts to determine how they Airport entrance to remote parking and on to terminal might work in practice and their potential effects on future drop-off, terminal landside planning. Chapters 5 and 6 describe and Airport entrance to private vehicle curb, present a number of alternative concepts for the landside and Passenger drop-off to SSCP, terminal processes, respectively. Close-in parking to SSCP,

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17 Figure 3-1. Arriving at the airport. Transit system to terminal entry, and then boarding the vehicle that will transport the passen- Secure area to close-in parking, ger to the terminal building. In using the remote parking Secure area to commercial vehicle pickup, and facilities, the passenger is often confronted with additional Commercial vehicle pickup to remote parking and on to stress resulting from a lack of information pertaining to airport exit. arrival time for the shuttle and the amount of time it will take the shuttle to travel to the terminal. Airport Entrance to Remote Parking and on to Terminal Drop-Off Airport Entrance to Private Vehicle Curb Many larger airports offer multiple options for remote park- One of the most heavily traveled routes on airport roadways ing that are in geographically different parts of the airport and is the route that private vehicles take to access the arrivals- that require different travel routes to access the facilities. level curbside to pick up arriving passengers. The heavy traffic Once a passenger has parked his or her vehicle in the remote volumes associated with this process, as well as unclear road- facility, the challenge, particularly for the elderly, shifts to way signage, can make this seemingly simple process one of finding and walking to the designated airport shuttle stop the most stressful. Adding to the stress of this process are late Figure 3-2. Leaving the airport.