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18 arriving flights combined with drivers not knowing when or transitions. In addition, the pedestrian paths to the close-in where they need to pick up their passengers. parking facilities typically involve at-grade crossings that require passengers to transport their baggage across a busy arrivals roadway. At airports where close-in parking is Passenger Drop-Off to SSCP provided in a garage, passengers with baggage may experi- Passengers being dropped off at the terminal curb via pri- ence heightened levels of concern for their personal safety vate vehicle or taxicab have several choices. If they have check because garages are often poorly lit and typically not heavily baggage, they can either use curbside check-in or proceed to populated. the departures hall where myriad options are available, rang- ing from self-service check-in and staffed bag-drop positions Secure Area to Commercial Vehicle Pickup to full-service ticketing. Passengers without baggage can pro- ceed directly to the SSCP if they obtained a boarding pass A process that has historically been less emphasized during over the Internet or if they used a self-service check-in kiosk or design is that of passengers leaving the secure area of the ter- the full-service counter. With the proliferation of the use of minal and proceeding to the commercial vehicle pickup area. self-service check-in and check-in over the Internet options, In particular, passengers who must claim checked baggage are strong potential exists to improve the level of service related often faced with the challenge of finding the proper bag-claim to this particular process. device and then navigating a complex path to the desired commercial service vehicle pickup area. Once passengers arrive at the appropriate pickup area, typically no informa- Close-In Parking to SSCP tion is available regarding how long the wait will be for the Passengers using the airport's close-in parking facilities next shuttle, bus, or taxicab, nor are any amenities provided experience many of the same processes as those being such as information displays, sheltered waiting areas, or rest- dropped off at the private vehicle or taxicab curbsides, except rooms that can be used while they wait. that close-in parkers must transport their baggage farther, between parked cars, and often through more vertical transi- Commercial Vehicle Pickup to Remote tions, and they potentially have to cross the terminal roadway Parking and on to Airport Exit via an at-grade crossing. Once inside the terminal, the processes and check-in/bag drop processes are the same. The focus in After exiting the terminal building, passengers require di- this process is on passengers with check baggage rather than rections to the vehicle boarding area for their desired mode those without check baggage who can proceed directly to the of travel to exit the airport such as parking shuttle bus, door- SSCP or use self-service check-in kiosks. to-door shuttles, or other people-mover system either adjacent to the terminal building or at an outer curbside island accessed via at-grade crosswalks. Several airports offer commercial Transit System to Terminal Entry vehicle pickup at remote curbside areas or in an adjacent park- At airports that offer a connection to a local transit system, ing garage. Once arriving at their desired vehicle boarding the transit system is often not directly integrated with the area, passengers may also experience additional stress resulting terminal building. At those airports with fully integrated rail from the lack of information regarding shuttle vehicle arrival systems, a higher level of customer convenience can be pro- times or unclear directions as to which vehicle to board. Upon vided by reducing the need for mode changes and long walk- reaching the remote parking area, passengers must offload ing distances. Typically passenger walking distances, multiple their baggage, walk to their vehicle, load the vehicle, and then vertical transitions, the need for multiple mode changes, travel to the exit plaza. At the exit plaza, the driver is often limited service times that may not correlate with airport peak presented with the option to exit either via prepaid lanes or periods, and unreliable connection times from the transit via a cashier-staffed lane. system to the terminal via an airport train or shuttle bus system are some of the issues associated with this process. Issues Passengers Commonly Face For each of the processes described above, passengers may Secure Area to Close-In Parking face one or more issues that affect their travel experiences and Passengers who must retrieve checked baggage and who increase their stress level. The issues passengers most com- have parked in the close-in parking facility face the additional monly face were identified through the research described in burden of transporting their baggage from the bag claim de- Chapter 2, as well as from input from the ACRP project panel vice to their vehicle, which often involves numerous vertical and the combined experience of the research team. These

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19 common issues were divided into several broad categories, as long, but also indirect, and moving sidewalks may not be avail- follows: able. More commonly, passengers are inconvenienced by changes in levels along the path. In addition to staircases, esca- Waiting/queuing, lators provide the primary means of assistance, with elevators Walking/vertical transitions, provided where required by accessibility laws. Unfortunately, Baggage handling by passengers, the elderly and the disabled, as well as families with small chil- Information/signage/wayfinding, dren and those with baggage carts, are often reluctant to use Vehicular movement/pickup/drop-off, and escalators because of the challenge of getting on and off with Safety and security. their baggage. Compounding this issue is the fact that elevators are often not provided on the passengers' direct route of Table 3-1 presents a summary of the issues commonly found travel and, therefore, may be difficult to find. Also, elevators in each process. Each category is discussed below. are frequently inadequately sized and are insufficient in num- ber to provide adequate service, especially at peak periods. Waiting/Queuing Baggage Handling by Passengers A major cause of anxiety and frustration for the airline passenger is the inevitability of having to wait in line, often Transporting baggage presents major problems for pas- multiple times. Passengers are often frustrated by the per- sengers. Issues include potentially long walks that may require ceived waste of time and are anxious about the possibility of negotiating level changes, lifting bags onto bag wells at ticket missing their flight, especially in light of the uncertainty re- counters, and lifting bags off bag-claim devices. At most U.S. lated to possible further queuing. In addition, waiting in line airports, baggage carts are not freely available, and elderly pas- generally requires long periods of time standing, which can sengers often require assistance lifting and transporting their be fatiguing, particularly for the elderly. This experience is baggage, which also may not be available. further aggravated by boredom resulting from a lack of mental stimulation and real-time information regarding their trip. From an operating efficiency standpoint, large building areas Information/Signage/Wayfinding are often required just to accommodate the nonproductive Airports are complex environments. In well-designed activity of queuing. facilities, wayfinding can be somewhat intuitive; however, most passengers rely on signage and other information sources to find their way. One concern is the clarity of signage, with Walking/Vertical Transitions font sizes often being too small for easy readability, especially Walking distances are generally not as significant an issue for the elderly and those with special needs. Informational on the landside of terminal buildings as they are on the airside. signage often competes with commercial signage and adver- The longest walking distances on the landside are typically in tising and includes terminology and symbols that may be large parking lots or garages where the routes may be not only understood by airport planners, but not necessarily by the Table 3-1. Issues commonly found in each key process. Issues Walking / Baggage Information / Vehicular Waiting / Vertical Handling by Signage / Movement / Pickup Safety and Key Processes Queuing Transitions Passengers Wayfinding / Drop-off Security Ticketing/check-in -- Close-in parking to departures hall -- -- POV drop-off at terminal curb CV drop-off at terminal curb Arrivals hall to POV pickup -- Arrivals hall to CV pickup -- Arrivals hall to close-in parking -- Transit system to terminal -- Issue is a significant concern Issue is present but not a significant concern -- Issue is not a concern